Paralinguistics


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Related to Paralinguistics: extralinguistic, nonlinguistic, paralinguistic cues

Paralinguistics

 

a branch of linguistics studying sound features that accompany speech but do not pertain to language. Paralinguistics studies, for example, loudness of speech, uncodified variations in intonation, the distribution of pauses, and sounds used to fill pauses, such as mmm … in Russian or “hmm …” in English.

The concept of paralinguistics was introduced in the late 1940’s by the American linguist A. Hill, but Soviet scholars had been investigating paralinguistic phenomena as early as the 1930’s (N. V. Iushmanov’s Extranormal Phonetics). In a broader interpretation, paralinguistics includes kinesics, the study of the facial expressions and gestures in relation to communication. Modern Soviet linguistics devotes a good deal of attention to paralinguistics partly because of the general theoretical interest in the structure and flow of communication. In addition, paralinguistics is studied for the practical reasons of determining how various speech techniques influence listeners and of identifying emotional states through speech.

REFERENCES

Nikolaeva, T. M., and Uspenskii, B. A. “Iazykoznanie i paralingvistika.” In the collection Lingvisticheskie issledovaniia po obshchei i slavianskoi tipologii. Moscow, 1966.
Kolshanskii, G. V. Paralingvistika. Moscow, 1974.

A. A. LEONT’EV

References in periodicals archive ?
Speaker English translation Teacher Guolai, Guolai, zheli zuo Come Come and sit here Student (English) He's gone around there He's gone around there Teacher (English) Okay Okay Teacher Kan laoshikan laoshi Look at me, look at me Teacher (English) Okay Laoshi you qiaokeli Okay I have chocolate Speaker Paralinguistics Teacher Student Teacher Teacher Teacher Example 4: Chinese In this example the teacher uses both languages for emphasis and reinforcement Speaker Oral Text Teacher '3A ban de tongxue, tame nyou 20 jige, you 25 geren, quandui de.
The teacher use of paralinguistics enables the teacher to focus on content learning without as much need for linguistic focus in the early stages of a new topic.
These elements are: restating/probing; paralinguistics; connecting language with reading/writing; translanguaging; and embedding of culture.
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Paralinguistic cues reinforce words and expressions.
Schuller, Bjorn, Stefan Steidl, Anton Batliner, Felix Burkhardt, Laurence Devillers, Christian Muller, and Shrikanth Narayanan (2013) "Paralinguistics in speech and language: state-of-the-art and the challenge".
(2016) have recommended using a minimalistic standard parameter set for the acoustic analysis of speech (GeMAPS) in paralinguistic voice analysis tasks.
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Pauses are paralinguistic features commonly employed to create tension or suspense.
Gestures and kinesics occur repeatedly throughout "The Story of Clit," often in combination with paralinguistic features in support of dialogue and characterization (lines 20-22).