Parallel Reactions

Parallel Reactions

 

concurrent chemical reactions with at least one common reactant. The term is infrequently used when a common product results from different reactants. Examples of parallel reactions are (1)nitration of phenol with the formation of ortho-, meta-, and Pra-nitrophenol (identical reactants) and (2) nitration of a benzene and toluene mixture (nitric acid is the common reactant).

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The integrated microfluidics system contains thousands of micromechanical valves in micrometer dimensions, controlling thousands of parallel reactions.
The kinetic parameters (apparent activation energy E and frequency factor A) were determined using the Friedman procedure, maximum pyrolysis rate method and parallel reactions model, respectively.
Therefore it is feasible to describe the pyrolysis process of North-Korean oil shale by the parallel reactions model.
Earliest methods of sequencing short sections of purified DNA were chemical in nature and relied on the ability to selectively break DNA strands at specific bases (G, A and G, C, and C and T) in each of four parallel reactions.
2] that later resulted in two competitive parallel reactions, viz.
Since this is a convergent plan, the first five stages involve parallel reactions, hence the total number of reactions in the plan (13) exceeds the number of stages (8).
It features an X, Y, Z robotic arm, can run up to 192 parallel reactions and features automated post-synthesis steps.
From the beginning, WaferGen founders Alnoor Shivji, Victor Joseph & Amjad Huda recognized that the standard 'high throughout' technique used in the biopharm sector, based on running parallel reactions under a single set of conditions, was not optimized.
The model assumed that the oil shale pyrolysis consisted of six parallel reactions with activation energies 80-280 kJ/mol.
The precopolytransesterification step kinetic model takes into account the system of two competitive parallel reactions, as has been considered by Mathew et al.
For the first time, as far as we know, diffusion with consecutive and parallel reactions of a plasticizing penetrant into a glassy polymer has been analyzed assuming power-law swelling kinetics as first proposed by Astarita and Sarti (7).
The second case studied is the reaction of Van de Vusse (1964), composed by a combination of a parallel reaction with two series reactions, also involving four species:

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