All data were subjected to homogeneity (Hartley) and normality (ShapiroWilk) tests to verify the assumptions of parametric statistics
. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test at 5% probability, using the software SISVAR 5.4 (Ferreira 2011).
The real issue here is that if his indictment of parametric statistics
is justified, then we need to pay attention, because psychologists and other social scientists use these tools daily.
There is a brief chapter on descriptive statistics, e.g., mean and range, then a section on parametric statistics
(t-test, regression), a section on non-parametric statistics and one that we seldom encounter where multivariate statistics are covered.
FDA approval studies have parametric statistics
based on the bell-shaped curve.
However, the entire history of the development of parametric statistics
and much of the attention directed to research design has been devoted to establishing causality (see Tabachnick & Fidell, 1989).
Additional analyses of travel factors were completed by using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA by ranks tests because the data were too skewed to use parametric statistics
(see Table 4).