The list of ncRNA effects includes gene silencing, position effect, hybrid dysgenesis, chromosome dosage compensation, imprinting, allelic exclusion, transvection, transduction, paramutation
, and altered chromatin modifying complexes.
Plant geneticists have known for years that similar RNAs can permanently shut down genes, a process known as paramutation
is the process that produces multicolored corn kernels, for instance.
This year's volume contains 28 reviews on such topics as the control of mitotic spindle length, trans-membrane signaling proteoglycans, a new wave of cellular imaging, rolling cell adhesion, chromatin regulatory mechanism in pluripotency, paramutation
and development, regulatory mechanisms for specification and patterning of plant vascular tissues, stem cell models of cardiac development and disease, and a decade of systems biology.
The best known examples of epigenetics are paramutation and parental imprinting.
Walker EL, Panavas T (2001) Strucrural features and methylation patterns associated with paramutation and the rl locus of Zea mays.
Paramutation alters regulatory control of the maize pl locus.
Their features are analogous to those we have pointed out in lpa241, such as the paramutations of the loci R, B, and, most of all, PL (Brink, 1973: Coe, 1996; Hollick et al., 2000).
gene silencing, paramutation
, genomic imprinting, position effect, etc.).
Gene regulation, germ cell reprograming, transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene slicing, paramutation
, pathogenesis of diseases, and X chromosome activation in mammals are some of the identified complex molecular activities carried out by different ncRNAs .
The first of five chapters, "Gene Cloning" (Chapter 43), covers endosperm genetics, including genetic control of zein disposition and organization of zein genes, and the genetics of the biosynthetic pathways of starch and anthocyanin (including paramutation
These mutation and mutation-like events include single allele changes, intragenic recombination, unequal crossing over, element transpositions, DNA methylation, paramutation, and gene amplification.
Coe (1966) later described paramutation at the B locus, also controlling seed and plant color.