If the results from application of this regression equation can be trusted, then they can be interpreted as follows: enhancement of transfer learning in Australopithecus and Paranthropus
, two australopithecine genera, exceeded those for all extant primates but still lay close to those of present-day great apes.
Incisor size and wear in Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus
Caption: Scientists made a virtual 3-D reconstruction of the ear anatomy for Paranthropus
robustus and determined that the hominid heard the high-frequency sounds needed to discern certain consonants.
Extending this type of analysis to Australopithecus and Paranthropus
should provide new insight into when our modern human pattern of hearing may have evolved.
The 3-D designer based in Sinop, Brazil, has digitally reconstructed the faces of over 15 extinct hominid species, including Paranthropus
boisei, a distant cousin to modern humans.
Published in the journal PLOS ONE, the researchers said the fossil represents one of the most recent occurrences of Paranthropus
boisei, a very early species of hominin.
Its diet was also more variable than the diet of another distant human relative known as Paranthropus
A team led by paleoanthropologist Manuel Dominguez-Rodrigo of Coroplutense University of Madrid unearthed nine teeth and large parts of two arm bones and two leg bones from an adult male Paranthropus
While some early hominids sported powerful jaws and large molars - including Paranthropus
boisei, dubbed "Nutcracker Man" - they may have cracked nuts rarely if at all, said University of Colorado Boulder anthropology Professor Matt Sponheimer, study co-author.
The study was done on the teeth of a creature called Paranthropus
boisei, a primate that lived between 2.3 million and 1.2 million years ago in Africa.
The specimens collected for this species and for Paranthropus
boisei brought the sample sizes in line with those of other hominins.