The combinatorial mutagenesis enables identifying residues, which are not critical for binding but contribute to the formation of epitope or establish multiple individually weak interactions with paratope
. This strategy is based on combinatorial randomization of a discrete antigenic region and grouping of mutated residues (primary sequence proximity) to maximize the chances of underscoring combined effects mediated by neighboring residues .
Neither the his-tag antibody alone nor the polyclonal antibodies against eEF2 were effective in binding eEF2 on the solid phase, probably owing to superior exposition and accessibility of the his-tag antibody's paratope
after binding to RAM.
The fifth point is that an antigen may have more than one epitope, and an antibody may also have more than one paratope
Mimotopes are small peptides able to mimic antigenic conformational structures recognized by an antibody (Ab) paratope
. The most frequently used approach to isolate specific mimotopes recognized by a mAb is based on the screening of a random peptide phage display through biopanning techniques [18,19].
Binding of the peptides to MAbs was inhibited by PSA, showing that they were paratope
It is also possible to consider alternative capture strategies, the ultimate being to etch the paratope
or capture zone directly into the microarray surface.