Paratuberculosis


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Related to Paratuberculosis: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

paratuberculosis

[¦par·ə·tə‚bər·kyə′lō·səs]
(veterinary medicine)

Paratuberculosis

 

(also Johne’s disease), a chronic infectious disease of ruminants characterized by specific changes in the intestine. It is prevalent in many countries of Europe, America, Australia, and Southeast Asia. The mortality rate is 10 to 25 percent. The causative agent is an acid-alcohol-Antiformin-resistant bacillus belonging to the genus Mycobacterium. The bacteria can survive eight to 12 months outside their host, but they die within 30 minutes in milk heated to 63°C. The disease afflicts sheep, cattle, reindeer, and, less commonly, goats, camels, and yaks.

Clearly diseased animals and those with a latent course of paratuberculosis discharge the bacteria into the environment with feces, milk, urine, and semen. Cleaning equipment and feed can transmit the bacteria. Factors that contribute to the spread of the disease include improper feeding, unsatisfactory maintenance, and overworking of the animals. Infection occurs in both the stabling and pasturing periods, generally in regions with acidic, waterlogged, or saline soils, where the grasses are lacking in phosphorous and calcium salts. Bacteria enter the intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes, where they induce a proliferative inflammation. Intestinal involvement results in profound functional disturbances and chronic poisoning.

Animals suffering from paratuberculosis are sluggish, emaciated, and unproductive. Profuse diarrhea is a characteristic clinical symptom. Epizootiological data, clinical symptoms, and results of laboratory studies and allergy skin tests are used to make the diagnosis. Specific therapy and prevention have not been worked out. If paratuberculosis is detected, the farm is declared infected and sanitary measures are instituted. General prevention involves meeting the zoohygienic demands for the maintenance and feeding of animals.

REFERENCE

Shchurevskii, V. E. Paratuberkulez sel’skokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh. Moscow, 1971.
References in periodicals archive ?
Phylogenomic exploration of the relationships between strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. BMC Genomics.
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis cultured from locally and commercially pasteurized cow's milk in the Czech Republic.
En este sentido es conveniente realizar una minuciosa valoracion macroscopica de posibles lesiones compatibles con tuberculosis (pulmon izquierdo y derecho, linfonodos parotideo, submandibular, retrofaringeo, mediastinico, traqueobronquial, mamario, preescapular y mesentericos, ademas de en otros organos como higado o bazo) y con paratuberculosis (observacion de valvula ileocecal y linfonodos ileocecales).
Whiting, "Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba," Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis with the backward elimination procedure in cattle and buffaloes revealed that herd (OR=0.294), age (OR=1.16) and lactation number (OR=1.534) showed significant association with the occurrence of Paratuberculosis. The study revealed that the disease was present at these two cattle/buffalo colonies.
Paratuberculosis (ptb), una enfermedad granulomatosa cronica enterica que afecta a rumiantes domesticos y salvajes [36], causando perdidas economicas [39], no responde a tratamientos y provoca emaciacion progresiva de los animales sin signos clinicos especificos [45].
This high copy number target gives an increased sensitivity compared to systems targeting single copy genes, which makes it popular in molecular diagnostic methods for paratuberculosis. IS900 has a unique nucleotide sequence which can be specifically detected by hybridization or PCR techniques (Collins et al 1993 and Moss et al 1992).
paratuberculosis and differentiation from other mycobacteria using SYBR Green and TaqMan assays," Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol.
Since there have been no studies to date on the role of mycobacteria in the pathogenesis of human allergies, we evaluated the allergenicity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and its possible contribution to the pathogenesis of these diseases.
paratuberculosis by a sonicate immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol.
Dvorska et al., "Potential risk of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis spread by syrphid flies in infected cattle farms," Medical and Veterinary Entomology, vol.