Diversity and abundance of terrestrial gastropods in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota: implications for the risk of moose becoming infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
. Alces 50: 121-132.
Elk that did not survive often displayed lowered movements due to neurologic disease (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
, Carpenter et al., 1973) and were excluded from the analysis to avoid biasing results.
2004), and higher than a population in northwest Minnesota severely affected by parasites (liver fluke Fascioloides magna and brain worm Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
) and disease /malnutrition (0.79; Murray et al.
(1993) Factors affecting Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Maine.
has been found in at least 18 species of gastropod (Anderson, 1963; Lankester and Anderson, 1968; Maze and Johnstone, 1986; Rowley et al., 1987).
We review long-term records from KD to better understand the importance of landscape-level forest disturbances, climate, predators, and pathogens including the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
) in determining historical trends in deer and moose populations.
The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
can be fatal to moose (Alces alces) (Anderson 1964), and was the probable cause of 5% of mortality of radio-collared moose in northwestern Minnesota and > 20% of incidentally-recovered moose in northern Minnesota (Murray et al.
Population increases in the northeastern United States have been facilitated by low predation risk, low deer densities (i.e., low transmission rates of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
), and optimal habitat conditions (i.e., clear-cutting, wetland habitat, farmland reverting to forest) (Karns 2007).
We deployed GPS collars on 26 adult moose (7 females and 19 males); 5 were excluded due to mortality, suspected infection with brainworm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
), or collar failure.
intensities in white-tailed deer are constrained across age classes (Slomke et al.
Some of the factors believed to be affecting population growth include: parasites such as Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
, deterioration in the quantity and quality of moose habitat, poaching, predation, and thermal stress (Brannen 2004, Beazley et al.
The best-known of these is the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
), a nematode long implicated as a limiting factor of moose populations (Lankester 2001, 2010).