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, Pohai
a large inlet of the Yellow Sea on the coast of NE China. Also called: (Gulf of) Chihli
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Pohaikuo, “state near the sea”), an early feudal state in northeastern Asia. It existed from the beginning of the eighth century through 926. It included the southern maritime region, southeastern Manchuria, and northeastern Korea. The basic populations included the Tungus tribes of Moho, the Koguryo people, and the Chinese—up to 100,000 families in all. They earned a living by farming, animal husbandry, silkworm raising, hunting, fishing, and handicrafts. There was also mining. A high level was achieved in working with iron and other metals. Pohai had political, commercial, and cultural ties with neighboring states, particularly with China and Japan. Pohai flourished most under Ta Ch’in Mao (738–94, the third of the 14 wans of Pohai). In 926 the state was defeated by the Khitan people.


Matveev, Z. N. Bokhai (Iz istorii Vostochnoi Azii VIII-X vv.). Vladivostok, 1929.
Okladnikov, A. P. Dalekoe proshloe Primor’ia. Vladivostok, 1959. Starikov, V. S. Material’naia kul’tura kitaitsev severo-vostochnykh provintsii KNR. Moscow, 1967.



a strait on the Yellow Sea, between the Liaotung and Shantung peninsulas. It connects the gulfs of Liaotung and Pohaiwan with the open sea. The width at the narrowest point is 105 km. The strait is up to 36 m deep. The current flows mainly in a southerly direction; its velocity is approximately 1 km/hr. Ports on the strait are Talien, Lüshun (Port Arthur), and Yent’ai.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the fall of 727, during the reign of Emperor Shomu 1Iie, the newly founded state of Parhae dispatched its first diplomatic mission to Japan.
He bore the title of suryong, which seems to have denoted a position of local municipal leadership in Parhae communities, though the precise meaning of the term remains the subject of much debate.
Exacerbating the situation was the threat posed by the powerful kingdom of Silla, which bordered Parhae to the south.
Between 727 and 926 (in which year Parhae fell to the Khitans), thirty-four official delegations were dispatched to Japan and the Japanese court sent thirteen to Parhae.
Evidence suggests that these factors evolved over time in accordance with changes in Parhae's political status vis-a-vis Tang China, Silla, and various Malgal groups.
Regardless, ensuing political developments in both Parhae and Japan ensured that it would never be put into action.
According to Lee Sungsi, the diplomatic missions Parhae dispatched to Japan prior to 762 are best seen as state-building exercises undertaken at a time when Parhae was both militarily vulnerable and in competition with multiple Malgal tribes for Chinese recognition.
When brought by delegations from Parhae, these gifts were formally regarded by the Japanese court as tribute; again, this distinction speaks more to the conventions of premodern East Asian diplomacy than to Parhae's actual position vis-a-vis Japan.
The poems written during the visits of Parhae delegations are not the earliest examples of Chinese poetry exchanged at diplomatic gatherings in Japan.
(64.) Kim, "Parhae myo1manui vonin"; EunoGuk Kim, "Parhae myolmanui vonin: sikan-kongkanjok jopkyin," Saeropke pon parhaesa, Seouh Koguryo yongujaedan, 2005, 77-88;
(65.) "Koguryo yonguhwae kukjehaksuldaehwae jonghapt'oron," Parhae konguk 1300 chunyon (698-926), Seoul: Hakyonmunhwansa, 1999, 159-88.
(66.) Ye Lunli, Istoriia gosudarstva; Han, Parhaeui taekwankesa; Song Ki-Ho, Parhae jongchi yoksa yongu, Seouh Ilchokal, 1995.