Parkinson's disease


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Related to Parkinson's disease: Alzheimer's disease, dopamine

Parkinson's disease

or

Parkinsonism,

degenerative brain disorder first described by the English surgeon James Parkinson in 1817. When there is no known cause, the disease usually appears after age 40 and is referred to as Parkinson's disease; a number of genes have been found to be associated with the disease. Parkinsonism usually refers to similar symptoms resulting from head injury, encephalitis, syphilis, carbon monoxide poisoning, cerebral arteriosclerosis, or use of MPTP (a synthetic narcotic). The disorder is also termed paralysis agitans, or shaking palsy.

Parkinson's disease is a debilitating and progressive disorder in which the chemicals that facilitate electrical transmission between nerve cells are depleted. It was the first disease to be treated by drugs that replace deficient neurotransmittersneurotransmitter,
chemical that transmits information across the junction (synapse) that separates one nerve cell (neuron) from another nerve cell or a muscle. Neurotransmitters are stored in the nerve cell's bulbous end (axon).
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. Symptoms usually begin in middle to later life with trembling of the lips and hands, loss of facial expression, and muscular rigidity. As it progresses it may bring on body tremors, particularly in muscles at rest. Movements become slow and difficult; walking degrades to a shuffle. After many years physical incapacity may occur. Dementia occurs in at least 50% of the patients; depression is also common.

When drugs such as levodopa (L-Dopa) are taken orally, many of the worst symptoms are lessened. New drugs such as pramipexole (Mirapex) and ropinirole (Requip) can delay the need for levodopa. Apomorphine (Apokyn) is used treat episodes of reduced mobility in patients with advanced Parkinson's that responds less effectively to levodopa. Future approaches to treatment include a focus on early detection and slowing progression of the disease. Encouraging results have been reported from surgical insertion of a pacemakerlike device deep in the brain to suppress uncontrolled movements, but surgical transplantation of fetal dopamine-producing cells failed to show significant benefits in a controlled study. Traditional surgery can alleviate some tremors, and physical therapy may help mobility.

Parkinson's disease

[′pär·kən·sənz di‚zēz]
(medicine)
References in periodicals archive ?
This knowledge can improve the care of patients with Parkinson's disease by helping student and practicing nurses anticipate the risks and consequences of non-motor Parkinson's disease manifestations.
Parkinson's disease is related to a chemical imbalance in the brain.
Attributed to a combination of genetic and nongenetic factors, Parkinson's disease has no completely effective therapy or cure.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the basal ganglia region of the brain, with tremor, rigidity and difficulty initiating movement being the most common symptoms.
Mechanistic approaches to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.
The most marked characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive loss of motion control.
People with Parkinson's disease do not care nor do they want to wait for treatments," Langston said.
She is a special nurse and a special person, and on behalf of all people with Parkinson's disease in Wales, I would like to give her our warmest thanks and congratulations.
The library has proven to be a wonderful resource for anyone seeking information on Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders," says Joseph.
Coenzyme Q10 slowed the progression of early Parkinson's disease in a study of 80 people who were not yet taking L-dopa for the disorder.
Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurologic disorders.

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