Parkinsonism

(redirected from Parkinson's syndrome)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Parkinson's syndrome: parkinsonian syndrome, Parkinsonian disorders

Parkinsonism:

see Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's disease
or Parkinsonism,
degenerative brain disorder first described by the English surgeon James Parkinson in 1817. When there is no known cause, the disease usually appears after age 40 and is referred to as Parkinson's disease; a number of genes have
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Parkinsonism

 

(also Parkinson’s disease), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system characterized by motor disorders. First described in 1817 by the English physician J. Parkinson under the name “shaking palsy,” it is one of the most common neurological diseases, primarily of older people. Its causes are diverse and include encephalitides, cerebral atherosclerosis, head injury, and poisoning by barbiturates or carbon monoxide. The cause cannot be determined in almost half the cases.

In parkinsonism, there is a deficiency of dopamine, a product of catecholamine metabolism, in the subcortical structures of the brain, which results in disruption of the balance between the main systems of brain transmitter substances and in lack of control of movements. Morphological study of the brains of those afflicted reveals destruction of substantia negra cells in the subcortical structures. The principal symptoms are a constant tremor of arms and legs, a masklike facial expression, salivation, increased tonus of all the muscles and general rigidity, and slowness of movements, in particular, a slow gait with small steps.

Treatment with L-dopa, which normalizes the concentration of dopamine, is effective but causes side effects in some patients. Central-acting cholinolytics are used in the initial stages. Surgery is indicated if drug therapy is ineffective. Brain surgery is performed by the stereotaxic technique, which involves destruction of a small area in the subcortical structures. It is quite safe and usually relieves all symptoms of parkinsonism for many years.

REFERENCES

Kandel’, E. I. Parkinsonizm i ego khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)
Cooper, J. Parkinsonism: Its Medical and Surgical Therapy. Springfield, Ill., 1961.

E. I. KANDEL

parkinsonism

[′pär·kən·sə‚niz·əm]
(medicine)
A clinical state characterized by tremor at a rate of three to eight tremors per second, with “pill-rolling” movements of the thumb common, muscular rigidity, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, and reduction in number of spontaneous and autonomic movements; produces a masked facies, disturbances of posture, gait, balance, speech, swallowing, and muscular strength. Also known as paralysis agitans; Parkinson's disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ali's shuffling, mumbling condition, the result of Parkinson's Syndrome, turned the spotlight once again on the dangers and moral uncertainty of the sport.
It is better to try to understand at this milestone in his life what Ali means to boxing and the world right now, as he begins the path towards old age struck down by the mentally and physically crippling Parkinson's syndrome.
He was diagnosed with Parkinson's syndrome, which displays all the symptoms of the illness without it being present.
The Rome gold medallist, three-time world heavyweight champion and role model to millions, sadly in the grip of Parkinson's Syndrome, trembled under the weight of the Olympic torch.
Laila insists she is not put off by the physical condition of her father, who shakes and slurs his speech because he suffers from Parkinson's Syndrome after his glittering but brutal career.
It is claimed he has Parkinson's syndrome - where the sufferer has all the symptoms of Parkinson's disease without actually having it.
But when he officially opened the Games, standing there, his arm twitching almost uncontrollably, terrible evidence of the Parkinson's syndrome he suffers, Ali was for a brief moment on top of the world again.
Magnetic resonance imaging in parkinson's disease and parkinson's syndromes.
The investigators excluded patients with "Parkinson's Plus" or secondary or atypical Parkinson's syndromes, previous surgeries for Parkinson's disease, medical contraindications to surgery or stimulation, contraindications to MRI, active alcohol or substance abuse, or a Mini-Mental Status Examination score of 24 or lower or other neuropsychological dysfunction.