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Related to Parkinsonian: Parkinsonian gait, parkinsonian syndrome


see Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's disease
or Parkinsonism,
degenerative brain disorder first described by the English surgeon James Parkinson in 1817. When there is no known cause, the disease usually appears after age 40 and is referred to as Parkinson's disease; a number of genes have
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(also Parkinson’s disease), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system characterized by motor disorders. First described in 1817 by the English physician J. Parkinson under the name “shaking palsy,” it is one of the most common neurological diseases, primarily of older people. Its causes are diverse and include encephalitides, cerebral atherosclerosis, head injury, and poisoning by barbiturates or carbon monoxide. The cause cannot be determined in almost half the cases.

In parkinsonism, there is a deficiency of dopamine, a product of catecholamine metabolism, in the subcortical structures of the brain, which results in disruption of the balance between the main systems of brain transmitter substances and in lack of control of movements. Morphological study of the brains of those afflicted reveals destruction of substantia negra cells in the subcortical structures. The principal symptoms are a constant tremor of arms and legs, a masklike facial expression, salivation, increased tonus of all the muscles and general rigidity, and slowness of movements, in particular, a slow gait with small steps.

Treatment with L-dopa, which normalizes the concentration of dopamine, is effective but causes side effects in some patients. Central-acting cholinolytics are used in the initial stages. Surgery is indicated if drug therapy is ineffective. Brain surgery is performed by the stereotaxic technique, which involves destruction of a small area in the subcortical structures. It is quite safe and usually relieves all symptoms of parkinsonism for many years.


Kandel’, E. I. Parkinsonizm i ego khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)
Cooper, J. Parkinsonism: Its Medical and Surgical Therapy. Springfield, Ill., 1961.



A clinical state characterized by tremor at a rate of three to eight tremors per second, with “pill-rolling” movements of the thumb common, muscular rigidity, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, and reduction in number of spontaneous and autonomic movements; produces a masked facies, disturbances of posture, gait, balance, speech, swallowing, and muscular strength. Also known as paralysis agitans; Parkinson's disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
Impact of grafted serotonin and dopamine neurons on development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian rats is determined by the extent of dopamine neuron degeneration," Brain, vol.
Pearson correlation coefficients for PDQLQ-TR, HY, and UPDRS PDQL-TR HY UPDRS I II III Total Parkinsonian -0.
Speech abnormalities are common in all of the Parkinsonian syndromes and in MSA, and there is often a mixed dysarthria (problems in articulating speech) with ataxic and spastic elements.
Although Parkinsonian tremors typically disappear during sleep and are reduced during relaxation periods, the effects of hypnosis on this type of movement disorder have been generally ignored.
Researchers followed 66 older patients (mean age 75) with a parkinsonian syndrome for at least one year after their initial medical evaluation.
However, since 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was proved to induce an acute and permanent parkinsonian syndrome in intravenous drug users (2), much research on the PD pathogenesis has focused on the neurotoxins that can cause clinical features similar to that seen in PD.
Chapters focusing on major disorders of the basal ganglia discuss Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonian syndromes, dopamine-dependent psychosis, and syndromes arising as complications of prolonged underactivity of striatal dopamine mechanism and other disorders of the basal ganglia.
Parkinsonian motor symptoms (tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia) improved in 11 of the 15 patients (73%) (Table 2).
Yet nothing made John Paul waver, even the debilitating sickness hidden under the glazed Parkinsonian mask, and ultimately his inability to speak and move.
Manganese (Mn) toxicity is associated with Parkinsonian symptoms, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood.
Selegiline as initial treatment in de novo parkinsonian patients.
Because the Parkinsonian "work" lawmakers do to fill the time allotted to them consists to a large extent of sitting in committee meetings at which a parade of government managers, state employees, and special interest lobbyists make the case for how much their pet program is "needed" and would be "sliced to the bone" unless the state raises taxes.