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Related to Parkinsonism: Parkinson's disease


see Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's disease
or Parkinsonism,
degenerative brain disorder first described by the English surgeon James Parkinson in 1817. When there is no known cause, the disease usually appears after age 40 and is referred to as Parkinson's disease; a number of genes have
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(also Parkinson’s disease), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system characterized by motor disorders. First described in 1817 by the English physician J. Parkinson under the name “shaking palsy,” it is one of the most common neurological diseases, primarily of older people. Its causes are diverse and include encephalitides, cerebral atherosclerosis, head injury, and poisoning by barbiturates or carbon monoxide. The cause cannot be determined in almost half the cases.

In parkinsonism, there is a deficiency of dopamine, a product of catecholamine metabolism, in the subcortical structures of the brain, which results in disruption of the balance between the main systems of brain transmitter substances and in lack of control of movements. Morphological study of the brains of those afflicted reveals destruction of substantia negra cells in the subcortical structures. The principal symptoms are a constant tremor of arms and legs, a masklike facial expression, salivation, increased tonus of all the muscles and general rigidity, and slowness of movements, in particular, a slow gait with small steps.

Treatment with L-dopa, which normalizes the concentration of dopamine, is effective but causes side effects in some patients. Central-acting cholinolytics are used in the initial stages. Surgery is indicated if drug therapy is ineffective. Brain surgery is performed by the stereotaxic technique, which involves destruction of a small area in the subcortical structures. It is quite safe and usually relieves all symptoms of parkinsonism for many years.


Kandel’, E. I. Parkinsonizm i ego khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)
Cooper, J. Parkinsonism: Its Medical and Surgical Therapy. Springfield, Ill., 1961.



A clinical state characterized by tremor at a rate of three to eight tremors per second, with “pill-rolling” movements of the thumb common, muscular rigidity, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, and reduction in number of spontaneous and autonomic movements; produces a masked facies, disturbances of posture, gait, balance, speech, swallowing, and muscular strength. Also known as paralysis agitans; Parkinson's disease.
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This increase in synaptic dopamine could also be reflected by the lower levels of Parkinsonism among the smokers.
In parkinsonism, globus pallidus interna hyperactivity results in more inhibitory GABAergic input to the PPN, leading to reduced activity of the glutamatergic PPN neurons, which project to the reticulospinal neurons of brainstem and spinal cord, causing abnormal changes in locomotion and muscle tone.
Parkinsonism in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
And low amyloid-betal-42 alone predicted PD-related dementia for up to 9 years after initial presentation of parkinsonism, Dr.
The initial referral symptom was obtained from the referring clinician's letter and divided into either Parkinsonism or primarily tremor.
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus associated parkinsonism was first described by Seminario and Pesano in 1930.
We hypothesize that the high burden of cardiovascular risk from diabetes contributes to brain Injury, which can impact cognition and parkinsonism," explains Dahodwala.
In the common form, the onset was usually older than 65 years (presenile or senile onset), and the chief symptom was cognitive impairment, followed by parkinsonism in 70% of the cases, while no parkinsonism was detected in 30% of the cases.
Parkinsonism seems to be resistant to Levodopa but in some cases seem to have improved or recovered after calcium and vitamin D replacement19-21.
Parkinsonism is a neurologic syndrome that has clinical features similar to Parkinson's disease.
Since the 1970s, Japanese neurologists have described patients with autosomal recessive forms of familial Parkinson disease (PD), (6) which have been termed "autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism" and "early-onset parkinsonism with diurnal fluctuation," both of which have become known as "PARK2" (1).
Gait disorders are classified as one of 7 types: peripheral sensory, peripheral motor, spasticity (hemiplegia, paraplegia), Parkinsonism, cerebellar palsy, cautious gait, and frontal-related gait [2].