Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with either topical paromomycin
or intralesional meglumine antimoniate.
Efficacy of albendazole and two different doses of paromomycin
for treatment of naturally occurring giardia infection in lambs.
8 Some oral antibiotics like neomycin, paromomycin
, vancomycin, and metronidazole have been effectively used, with or without lactulose, to reduce the load of ammonia-producing enteric bacteria in patients with acute HE.
Porcine intestinal epithelial barrier disruption by the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin promotes transepithelial passage of doxycycline and paromomycin
," BMC Veterinary Research, vol.
Treatment with a luminal agent such as paromomycin
(25-30 mg/kg/day orally in three divided doses for seven days), diiodohydroxyquin (650 mg orally three times daily for 20 days), or diloxanide furoate (500 mg orally three times daily for 10 days) to eliminate intraluminal cysts is also warranted.
Other drugs like amphotericin B, ketoconazole, miltefosine, paromomycin
, pentamidine etc may also be used for the treatment.
Since its inception in 2003, DNDi has delivered six treatments: two fixed-dose antimalarials (ASAQ and ASMQ), nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT) for late-stage sleeping sickness, sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin
(SSG&PM) combination therapy for visceral leishmaniasis in Africa, a set of combination therapies for visceral leishmaniasis in Asia, and a paediatric dosage form of benznidazole for Chagas disease.
USA) with 1% sorbitol supplementation and Bifidobacterium lactis with MRS-NNLP agar (NNPL solution: Neomycin sulphate 100 mg, Paromomycin
200 g; Nalidixic acid 15 mg, LiCl 3 g per liter of media).
Of these, nitazoxanide led to cure for 1 (25%); subsequent treatment with quinacrine led to cure for 2, and treatment with paromomycin
led to cure for the other.
Besides oral and parenteral medications (pentavalent antimonials, liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, and some others), local cryotherapy, intralesional infiltration of sodium stibogluconate, local heat therapy, and various topical paromomycin
preparations are in practice for many many years.
1) Seasons Months Total Spring April 41 May 131 June 110 Total 282 Summer July 40 August 91 September 119 Total 250 Fall October 217 November 176 December 202 Total 595 Winter January 100 February 38 March 49 Total 187 Grand Total (12 months) 1315 (100) (*) Paromomycin
, chlorporomazine, miconazole, ketoconazole, betamethasone, erythromycin, tetracycline, triamcinolone, calamine D, acyclovir, fluconazole, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) ointments, and zinc oxide; (**) Traditional herbal medicines like turmeric, garlic, thyme, henna, yarrow, opium, and pomegranate peel extract; Figure in parentheses indicate percentages.
So far, chemotherapy includes pentavalent antimonials, numerous forms of amphotericin B, paromomycin
(aminosidine), pentamidine isethionate, hexadecylphospho-choline (HePC; miltefosine), and azoles such as ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole (World Health Organization, Leishmaniasis Control home page).