Paronym

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Paronym

 

a word similar to another in sound; the partial coincidence in outward form occurs simply by chance and is not conditioned by semantic or word-formation processes. Examples are seen in the Russian vremia (“time”) and bremia (“burden”) and apellirovat’ (“to appeal”) and operirovat’ (“to operate”).

Some scholars regard as paronyms words with the same root that are similar in structure or sound and are the same part of speech or have common grammatical features. Because of the partial coincidence in sound, there may be an outward change in one of the words, usually the one less used; this is known in linguistics as false etymology. Sometimes a chance coincidence in sound leads to changes that become fixed in language. For example, svidetel’ (“witness”) was connected in Old Russian not with the root vid- (meaning “to see”) but with věd-, a root appearing in vedat’ (“to know”) and svedushchii (“knowledgeable”).

Paronyms may be misused by a speaker, as when stupen’ nogi is used instead of stupnia nogi to refer to the sole of the foot, the confusion arising from the similarity in sound between the Russian words for “stairstep” (or “level”) and “sole.” Paronyms are used in poetry (including rhymes) and also in puns.

REFERENCES

Gvozdev, A. N. Ocherki po stilistike russkogo iazyka, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1955.
Bel’chikov, Iu. A., and M. S. Paniusheva. Trudnye sluchai upotrebleniia odnokorennykh slov russkogo iazyka: Slovar’-spravochnik. Moscow, 1968.

D. N. SHMELEV

References in periodicals archive ?
The qualitative study is essentially two-partite and, first, sets out to investigate linguistic phenomena which lay down the framework of formal relationships in a pun (and are, thus, in a mutually exclusive way, obligatory for its creation), namely homonymy, homophony and paronymy (v.
While, terminologically, deciding where precisely (incomplete) homophony retires and paronymy takes over becomes unproblematic the moment the labels "near-identity" and "close-similarity" are applied to nearhomophony and paronymy respectively, conceptually, the borderline can only be intuited.
To arrive at a fairly comprehensive picture of homonymy, homophony and paronymy it should not go unrecognized that they can be sub-divided further into partial homonymy (amounting to 6 instances in the present corpus), partial homophony (5) and partial paronymy (2), respectively.
Further analysis will distance itself from a close inspection of homonymy, homophony and paronymy (conditioning, in a mutually exclusive way, the emergence of puns) and turn to optional mechanisms which only some puns additionally enter, refining somehow their structure.
All things considered, the finest pun type appears to belong with vertical homonymy and the least refined one is constituted by horizontal paronymy.
Kooij 1971; Cruse 1986), the only varieties pertinent to punning purposes are of lexical and lexico-syntactic character; (ii) ambiguity does not appear (unrestrictedly) in all pun types in that, homonymy excepted (where it can always be taken for granted), homophony confines it to spoken medium, homography to written one and paronymy precludes altogether; (iii) a rich collection of diagnostic tests (context-variant (indirect) and context-invariant (direct)) for differentiating between ambiguity and vagueness has amassed in linguistic scholarship, for which see, for example, Cruse (1986: 50-66) (favouring the term "generality" for the latter) and Kempson (1977: 123-137).