It also uses its large parotoid glands
, which are behind each eye.
The larger the toad the larger the parotoid glands
and the greater the volume of venom secreted.
Parotoid glands, are large post-orbital serous glands that produce and store a viscous and creamy poisonous secretion composed of proteins, serine proteases, peptides, biogenic amines, cardiotonic steroids and alkaloids (Clarke, 1997; Anjolette et al., 2015).
Cytotoxic profile of natural and some modified bufadienolides from toad Rhinella scneideri parotoid gland secretion.
The parotoid glands secretion was extracted by manual compression of the parotoid glands and collected in sterile bottles.
The animals were randomly divided into 5 groups: the control group (N = 3), which received distilled water, and 4 groups (G3, G6, G10, and G25; N = 5 per group), which were treated using different concentrations of the parotoid glands secretion.
jimi parotoid glands secretion showed no clinical signs of toxicity.
Of the toads that had parotoid glands expressed, microscopic examination revealed the majority of the vesicles in the glands had emptied significantly with little to no contents remaining.
2006a, b) were utilized because of their abundance, large size, and prominent parotoid glands. All specimens were collected by hand at night within the city limits of Kingsville, Kleberg County, Texas USA and were housed individually in appropriately sized plastic Sterlite [R] containers which meet the requirements and guidelines for housing live amphibians (Pough 1991; National Academy Council 1997).
Parotoid glands were expressed in live animals using a transcutaneous electrical stimulation device following Grant & Land (2002).
Also, behaviors can largely vary, as the unique defense strategy of Rhaebo guttatus, that is, being able to actively and voluntarily squirt poison from its parotoid glands, an unexpected feature that was until recently considered to be an ancient myth .
icterica have protuberant and large parotoid glands whereas R.