Nesse periodo, em Atenas, viviam dois artistas rivais: Zeuxis e Parrhasios
13) Jenofonte, autor predilecto de Montaigne para sus estudios de Socrates, en una de sus obras, muestra a Socrates dialogando con el pintor Parrhasios
sobre el tema de la pintura; si el pintor (zographos) representa lo vivo, su mayor empresa sera pintar el alma como lo mas noble, mas el alma solo se puede pintar como ethos : "Dime, Parrhasios
, declara Socrates, la pintura (graphike) no es una imagen de las cosas que uno ve?
The most famous story of illusion in classical antiquity illustrates the point to perfection; it is the anecdote from Pliny, how Parrhasios
was trumped by Zeuxis, who had painted grapes so deceptively that birds came to peck at them.
According to his famous account of the contest between two Greek painters of the fifth century BC, Zeuxis painted grapes so realistic that birds flew up to peck at them, but Parrhasios
outdid his opponent with a pictute of a curtain.
Segun Quignard (2000: 177) "el emperador Tiberio, coleccionista de las pinturas pornograficas de Parrhasios
, hablo de pintura con Santa Veronica".
Setting the stage for this discussion, Rosand introduces the lines of Apelles and Parrhasios
, two drawings particularly celebrated in antiquity.
He continues to rely as a starting-point on a classical distinction, the line of Apelles as contrasted with that of Parrhasios
, the one delineatory, the other spatial, and, although Merleau-Ponty is invoked, there are no references to contemporary theories of visual perception which might put the universal usefulness of that distinction in doubt.
Classical and Hellenistic Greece trompe l'oeil painters Zeuxis, Parrhasios
, Apelles, Protogenes, and Sosos are known only from accounts recorded by ancient writers and, occasionally, from Roman copies.
Zeuxis came second in that particular contest when he tried to lift a drape partially covering the canvas of his rival Parrhasios
, only to find it was painted on.
In the course of a contest with the painter Parrhasios
, Zeuxis had painted a cluster of grapes so realistically that birds approached to feed on them.
In a poem of 1538-39 that prefaced a collection of Holbein's Old Testament woodcuts, Bourbon ran out of superlatives: the artist outclassed Apelles and Parrhasios
and that: third miracle of the ancient world, Xeuxis, all rolled into one
It is in any case plain from the fact that Mantegna is mentioned in the same lyrical breath as Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael, not to mention Zeuxis, Parrhasios
and Apelles, that he must have been held in the highest esteem some twenty-five years after his death.