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Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.


References in periodicals archive ?
Variation between inflected and uninflected participles
Derivational morphemes of participles grammaticalized into tense markers and voice (passive) markers.
Four instances belonging to the last root behave like participles with respect to case, e.
Bjorck (1940:17) has drawn attention to the fact that the participles that occur in adjectival periphrasis can often be used in the comparative and superlative degrees, and/or as adverbs.
The Italian passato prossimo is a compound tense formed with the present tense of an auxiliary verb (essere or avere) followed by the past participle of the verb being used.
Going through the Farsi translations of the novel, one can find that although Taheri has made an attempt to keep the participles in Farsi, in many cases the present participles have been changed into tensed sentences, neutralizing the function these tenseless devices serve in bridging the past to the present.
You may remember an English teacher calling them "dangling participles.
And linguistically-minded football fans will have noticed that the Aston Villa squad contains no fewer than four players whose surnames sound like the past participles of common verbs.
It's littered with typos, dangling participles, and confusions of fact.
Celia is a stickler for grammar, and it's hard to keep up with her subjunctives, past participles, et al.
This article investigates how English-speaking children interpret imperfective and perfective participles used attributively in a prenominal position, as in 'burning/burned candle'.

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