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Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.


References in periodicals archive ?
To generalise on this basis that all present participles used for adjectival periphrasis are adjectivised, is contestable, to say the least.
First of all, the passato prossimo requires the formation of the past participle of the main verb, or the verb being used.
The study revealed that deviations in translation occurred mostly in reproducing the present participles and back shifted tenses; that is, the grammatical features of free indirect discourse.
Based on such an analysis we can predict that the Croatian passive participle, in addition to being used in passive formation, can occur as a premodifier, which proves to be correct (cf.
Note that two synthetic TAM forms (Simple Present, Simple Witnessed Past) and the Simple Unwitnessed Past are formed with the help of suffixes that are traditionally classified as "nonfinite", namely converbs (Imperfective converb, Perfective converb) and participles (Resultative participle).
There exists a relevant contrast between both approaches, nonetheless, since the attraction of the DP theme into [Spec,Prt] as triggered by feature-strength of English participles applies within core syntax, whereas Th/Ex is a phonological operation.
In FST-MORPH, French participles are classified according to Table 1.
Maier is correct to reject an active reading of the past participle, since this never occurs with an expressed object.
The standards of participles and words: The biggest problem in Chinese participles and words is the concept of words is confusing.
36x] OED-types frequency advantage for lexicalized past participles, though with converse directionality as onomasiologically adjacent deverbal adjectives / present participles fall on a more frequent category in the former correlation and on a less frequent one in the latter.
1) There are two suffixes -to in Italian--the inflectional suffix attached to verbs to form past participles (see Table 5.
In this article, I will limit the discussion to present participles, the ones that end in -ing.

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