Paschal II

Paschal II

(păs`kəl) [Lat.,=of Easter], d. 1118, pope (1099–1118), an Italian (b. near Ravenna) named Ranieri; successor of Urban II. He was a monk and, as a reformer, was made a cardinal by Pope Gregory VII. He was a loyal supporter of Urban II as well. His reign began auspiciously. Philip I of France was reconciled with the church (1104), St. Anselm was victor in his struggle in England, and the First Crusade was a great success. Difficulties with the Roman emperor were continual, however, chiefly over the question of investitureinvestiture,
in feudalism, ceremony by which an overlord transferred a fief to a vassal or by which, in ecclesiastical law, an elected cleric received the pastoral ring and staff (the symbols of spiritual office) signifying the transfer of the office.
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. Henry IVHenry IV,
1050–1106, Holy Roman emperor (1084–1105) and German king (1056–1105), son and successor of Henry III. He was the central figure in the opening stages of the long struggle between the Holy Roman Empire and the papacy.
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 was deposed by his son Henry VHenry V,
1081–1125, Holy Roman emperor (1111–25) and German king (1105–25), son of Henry IV. Crowned joint king with his father in 1099, he put himself at the head of the party desiring reconciliation with the pope and, with the approval of Pope Paschal II,
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, with whom Paschal was allied. Henry V, however, proved no less strongly anti-investiture. He invaded Italy in 1110; negotiations between emperor and pope failed, and the emperor captured Paschal, who was compelled to surrender the papal position on investitures. Once freed, however, and encouraged by clerical protests, the pope reaffirmed the legislation against lay investiture in 1112 and 1116. The name is also spelled Pascal. He was succeeded by Gelasius II.
References in periodicals archive ?
In February of the year 1113, Pope Paschal II issued a bull (or decree) granting recognition to The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and Malta (the formal name of the group) during a time when Europeans fought to restore Christianity in the Holy Land and Jerusalem, i.
The piece of the cross in Ireland was donated to the O'Brien Kings of Thomond by Pope Paschal II in recognition of the country's support for the Catholic Church.
If one historical figure dominates the collection, it is the subject of Uta-Renate Blumenthal's doctoral research Pope Paschal II, to whom seven articles are devoted.