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Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.


References in periodicals archive ?
The active sense of the participle in the name of the Anatolian Storm-god is noteworthy, but not remarkable for a past participle.
Furthermore, irregular stems may lack a TV, as evidenced in puse, puso, and puesto wherein the 1st and 3rd singular have the irregular inflectional endings--e and--o, instead of the regular ones i, io, and the past participle ends in--to, instead of the regular--ido, which includes the TV (Clahsen et al, 2002, p.
The following list of morphological patterns presents productive compounds whose head is an adjective, an -ing form or a past participle.
So as to avoid ambiguity and overlapping with other paradigms, a set of formally distinctive forms of verbs of the second weak class have been selected that include: the infinitive (-ian), the inflected infinitive (-ianne), the present participle (-iende), the past participle (ge-od), the first person singular of the present indicative (-ie/ge-ige) the second person singular of the present indicative (-ast), the present indicative plural (-iao/-iap), the present subjunctive singular (ie/ge-ige), the first/third person singular of the preterite indicative (-ode), the second person singular of the preterite indicative (-odest), the preterite indicative plural (-odon) and the preterite subjunctive plural (-oden).
The latter structure is unique to Surgut, because the person marking on the passive past participle does not indicate the agent, as would be expected for passive participles in attributive function, but instead indicates the patient.
The fifth level contains the past participle used both as adjective and noun and the sixth, and final, level of integration is the formation of the superlative absolute in both nominal and adjectival form.
past participles prefixed with un are adjectival; * a past participle appearing as the complement of to seem, remain, sound and look is adjectival, not verbal; * only adjectives and not verbs occur as prenominal modifiers.
Using a different construction, namely present and past participles, again reveals that children's comprehension of aspectual interpretations undergoes considerable development.
In this paper I exemplify various types of renderings and their element order found in these Old English versions of the Gospels: the interchangeability between -enne and -ende forms, imperatives, passive constructions, simple and phrasal verbs, simple forms and periphrastic forms, beon/wesan or habban with the past participle, "impersonal" constructions, the use of auxiliaries, or the like.
Differences between the rules for past participle formation in Dutch as spoken in Brussels and Alsatian as spoken in Strasbourg are claimed to be responsible for the differences in the integration patterns of French past participles that maintain French morphology, the so-called unintegrated French past participles.
Look for past participles - verb forms that usually end in -ed, such as described, provided, and specified.