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general name for baked articles of food made of paste or having paste as a necessary ingredient. The name is also used for the paste itself. The essential elements of paste are flour, liquid (usually milk or water, sometimes beaten egg), and shortening. The making of pastry was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, but its modern development in the Western world dates from the late 18th cent. Pastry is classed according to the amount of shortening used and the method of blending it with the flour as plain, flaky, and puff pastry. Plain pastry is used to cover meat or fruit pies; flaky pastry, which requires more shortening than plain, is used in strudels and the Turkish baklava. Puff pastry is used in the making of cream puffs and éclairs.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



baked goods whose main ingredient is flour. Depending on the mixture from which they are made, pastries are divided into sponge cake; short, puff, and crumb pastry; pâte à choux; meringues; and macaroons.

Sponge cake is made with flour, sugar, and eggs at a ratio of 1:1:2. Short pastry is made by mixing flour, eggs, butter, and sugar, with the butter and sugar comprising 60 and 40 percent of the quantity of the flour. Puff pastry is made by mixing flour and eggs with water in which salt and a small amount of citric acid have been dissolved. The basic ingredient of crumb pastries is sponge-cake and short-pastry crumbs, which are combined with cream filling, powdered sugar, and other ingredients, including flavorings or fruit syrup.

To make pâte à choux, butter and salt are added to boiling water. The flour is then added all at once while the mixture is rapidly beaten. The resulting thick, uniform mass is slightly cooled and the eggs are added. Meringues are made by adding sugar to whipped egg whites. The resulting mixture is baked in small rounded shapes at a low temperature. Macaroons are made with ground almonds, flour, sugar, and whipped egg whites.

Baked pastries, including crumb pastries, are prepared for consumption by adding one or more of the following: fillings, frostings, flavored syrups, fruit or other jellies, candied fruit, or finely chopped almonds or other nuts.

Pastries are perishable and must be kept at a temperature of 0–8°C. Pastries with a custard filling may be kept no longer than six hours, those with a whipped-cream filling no longer than seven hours, and those with a butter-cream filling no longer than 36 hours.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
7 When the pastry cases and the cuare cold, spoon the custard into ethe pastry cases, enough to fill them uyour strawberries to look like hearts adecorate the tops.
INGREDIENTS Pastry case: 250g of plain flour 100g of icing sugar 35g ground almonds 125g of unsalted butter, plus more for greasing 2 eggs 1 egg yolk Chocolate and chilli filling: 400g of 70% dark chocolate, roughly chopped 350ml of double cream Three-quarter tsp chilli flakes 150ml of milk 2 eggs, beaten To serve: Clotted cream ice cream Scottish raspberries Honeycomb spikes
7 Pour the filling into the pastry case. Put spoonfuls of meringue around the edge of the filling so it just touches the pastry and pile the rest into the centre, spreading so that it covers the filling.
Blind bake the pastry cases in a preheated oven 200degC/400degF/ gas mark 6 for 20 minutes then remove the parchment and baking beans and return to the ve more minutes at oven for fi 160degC/325degF /gas mark 3 until lightly brown.
Remove the pastry case from the oven and pour in the mascarpone mixture.
Brush the edge of each pastry case with a drop of cold water and arrange the pastry strips in a lattice across each tart.
Take care not to overfill the pastry case. Carefully place the tart in the oven and bake for 30 minutes.
Pour the mixture into the baked pastry case, sprinkle over the thyme leaves and bake in the oven for 35 to 40 minutes until the filling is just set in the middle and light golden brown on top.
You also need a 10-12in pastry case or 8-10 small ones of method?
All of this is encased in a light puff pastry case with a crunchy sage topping.
Fold in the raisins and spoon the mixture into the pastry case over the marmalade.
Line the pastry case with a piece of baking parchment and add enough baking beans to cover the base.