Quantitative evolutionary geneticists generally interpret statistically significant paternal effects
on progeny phenotype (when pollen donors are mated with a random or shared array of maternal plants) as evidence for the presence of additive genetic variation among pollen donors in the observed trait(s).
This analysis confirmed the importance of [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 2 OMITTED] among-female effects, but was ambiguous with respect to paternal effects
To control for the possibility that the negative variance components and paternal effect
might be artifacts of an unbalanced crossing design, we used a maximum likelihood method to determine whether the paternal effect
would persist when negative variance components were constrained to zero.
These variances indicated that the traits studied were under the influence of both maternal and paternal effects
with additive and dominant genes.
Scientists made the discovery while engaged in a project to work out the molecular blueprint of a paternal effect
However, whether a paternal effect
or a response to selection, the effect is not in the direction expected; offspring developed slower on the host their father was reared on.
There is strong paternal effect
of sperm DNA damage at all stages of embryonic development.
One distinct paternal effect
is that fathers seem to provide a "wake-up call" with their stimulation that complements the more soothing styles mothers use with babies; the outcome is that as early as 30 days after birth, newborns behave differently with their fathers and mothers.
The first of these interpretations depends on an assumption that the nuclear genotype of sires has a negligible influence on offspring phenotype, apart from Mendelian transmission, i.e., that variance due to additive genetic paternal effect
([V.sub.Ap]) is negligible.
Significant paternal effects
were found for days to emergence, days to first leaf (Table 2B), and seed mass per fruit (Table 3B), and there was also an indication of a paternal effect
on days to second leaf (P = 0.09).
have traditionally been assumed to be minimal (Roach and Wulff 1987), even though experimental designs often have not been capable of detecting them (Milligan 1991).
on the human sex ratio at birth: evidence from interracial crosses.