New York Public Library

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New York Public Library,

free library supported by private endowments and gifts and by the city and state of New York. It is the one of largest libraries in the world. The library was created by a 1895 law consolidating older reference libraries established by bequests of John Jacob AstorAstor, John Jacob,
1822–90, American financier, b. New York City, educated at Columbia and Göttingen universities and at Harvard law school; son of William Backhouse Astor (1792–1875).
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 (1848) and James LenoxLenox, James
, 1800–1880, American bibliophile and philanthropist, b. New York City. Lenox was a founder of the Presbyterian Hospital, New York City. He amassed a fine collection of paintings and books that, as the Lenox Library, became part of the New York Public Library
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 (1876), with the Tilden Trust. In 1897 New York City agreed to build and equip a central building on the site of the Croton reservoir on Fifth Ave. between 40th and 42d St. The building, designed by J. M. Carrère and Thomas Hastings, was completed in 1911. The branch system absorbed several independently endowed circulating libraries, and 39 branches were built with money donated by Andrew Carnegie in 1901.

In addition to the main building, collections are also housed at a second midtown branch, an annex for newspapers and patents, and 82 branch libraries. A circulating and reference branch devoted entirely to the performing arts is located at Lincoln Center for the Performing ArtsLincoln Center for the Performing Arts,
in central Manhattan, New York City, between 62d and 66th streets W of Broadway. Lincoln Center is both a complex of buildings and the arts organizations that reside there.
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, and the Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture is one of the finest collections of its kind in the world. The enormous and fully computerized Science, Industry, and Business Library, located at Madison Avenue and 34th Street in midtown, opened in 1996. The largest project undertaken by the library since 1911, it features a variety of traditional and ultramodern facilities and resources. In 1999 the library opened its Center for Scholars and Writers in a suite at the main building. Directed by historian Peter Gay, the Center draws on library collections to foster creative writing and thinking, advance scholarship, and sponsor public events, and appoints 15 participating fellows annually.

The research library contains more than 10,000,000 volumes. The library has especially fine collections on Americana, art, economics, folklore, music, black history and literature, New York City, Jewish history, and Semitic languages. It has an excellent newspaper collection and is an important collector and holder of prints, manuscripts, first editions, and rare books, including the Berg collection of English and American literature.


See histories by H. M. Lydenberg (1923, repr. 1972) and P. Dain (1972); documentary by F. Wiseman (2017).

References in classic literature ?
His squaw, for the most part of the time, trudged on foot, like the residue of the party; nor did any of the men show more patience and fortitude than this resolute woman in enduring fatigue and hardship.
Royal Oman Police mourns the death of one of its members today, while performing his duty and may Allah bestow his soul with the martyrs and the truthful, and asks all employees of the police to convey their condolences to the bereaved family, and we call Allah to inspire them with patience and fortitude," added the spokesman.
HRH the Crown Prince prayed to Allah the Almighty to rest the souls of the late security personnel in eternal peace, and to grant their families patience and fortitude, wishing the injured quick recovery.
I ask God to forgive them and have mercy on them, and to grant their families patience and fortitude," he tweeted.
The Governor also expressed sympathies with members of the bereaved family and prayed Allah Almighty to grant them courage to bear this irreparable loss with patience and fortitude.
He also prayed for the early recovery of the victims and courage to the bereaved families to bear the loss with patience and fortitude.
Mian Ifitkhar lauded contribution of both the party workers for the cause of party in Nowshera district and prayed to Allah Almighty to rest the departed soul in eternal peace and grant courage to the bereaved family members to bear these losses with patience and fortitude.
In his cable to the King, His Highness the Amir prayed to God to bestow mercy on the deceased and patience and fortitude on the Saudi Royal family.
In a statement to Saudi Press Agency (SPA), the Deputy Secretary General of the Society, Sheikh Ali Mohammad Abu Turab said the incident was painful, praying Allah Almighty to accept the deceased in the martyrs and inspire their families patience and fortitude.
In solidarity with Christians in Egypt, Sherine posted a Facebook picture of a white cross and crescent on a black background, with the caption, "Oh, God, the most merciful, be merciful to those who have died and give their families patience and fortitude.
Barzani said: "We received with great sadness and sorrow the news of the death of the pilot, Muath Kasasbeh, who was brutally killed at the hands of terrorist Daash group, and while we strongly condemn this heinous crime, we offer, in our name and on behalf of the people of Kurdistan, deep and heartfelt condolences to Your Majesty, the Jordanian people and the family of the martyr, praying to the Almighty to grant you patience and fortitude.
Khamenei claims that the issue of Bahrain can be solved only through patience and fortitude," he posted on his account.