Patkul, Johann Reinhold von

Patkul, Johann Reinhold von

(yō`hän rīn`hôlt fən pät`ko͝ol), 1660–1707, Livonian nobleman. He incurred the wrath of Charles XI of Sweden by championing the rights of the Livonian gentry and fled abroad to escape punishment. In 1698, Patkul entered the service of Augustus II of Poland and Saxony. He inspired Augustus's scheme to wrest Livonia from Sweden and reunite it with Poland and was instrumental in forming the anti-Swedish alliance of Poland, Denmark, and Russia that led (1700) to the Northern WarNorthern War,
1700–1721, general European conflict, fought in N and E Europe at the same time that the War of the Spanish Succession was fought in the west and the south.
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. He held high commands in the war, but when Augustus II made peace with Sweden at Altranstädt (1706) he delivered Patkul to Charles XII, who had him broken on the wheel.
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