Friuli

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Friuli

(frēo͞o`lē), historic region, now divided between Friuli–Venezia GiuliaFriuli–Venezia Giulia
, region (1991 pop. 1,197,666), 3,031 sq mi (7,850 sq km), NE Italy, bordering on Austria in the north and on Slovenia in the east. Trieste is the capital of the region, which is divided into Gorizia, Pordenone, Trieste, and Udine provs.
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, NE Italy, and SloveniaSlovenia
, Slovene Slovenija, officially Republic of Slovenia, republic (2005 est. pop. 2,011,000), 7,817 sq mi (20,246 sq km). It is bounded in the north by Austria, in the northeast by Hungary, in the southeast by Croatia, and in the west by Italy.
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. It extends from the E Alps to the Adriatic and includes, in the east, a fertile plain and a section of the KarstKarst
, Ital. Carso, Slovenian Kras, limestone plateau, W Slovenia, N of Istria and extending c.50 mi (80 km) SE from the lower Isonzo (Soča) valley between the Bay of Trieste and the Julian Alps.
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 region. The inhabitants are Italians in the west and Slovenes in the east. UdineUdine
, city (1991 pop. 99,189), capital of Udine prov., Friuli–Venezia Giulia, NE Italy. Manufactures include machinery, textiles, metals, and chemicals. In the 10th cent. Emperor Otto II gave the city to the patriarchs of Aquileia, who made it their capital (13th cent.).
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 and GoriziaGorizia
, Ger. Görz (gûrts), city (1991 pop. 38,505), capital of Gorizia prov., Friuli–Venezia Giulia, NE Italy, on the Isonzo River and on the Slovenian border. It is an industrial, commercial, transport, and tourist center.
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, both in Italy, are the principal cities.

Friuli derives its name from the Roman city of Forum Iulii (modern Cividale del Friuli). Occupied by the Romans (2d cent. B.C.), it became a Lombard duchy (6th–8th cent.) and a Frankish march (8th cent.). Before A.D. 1000 it was divided into the counties of Gorizia (east) and Friuli (west). The western county passed (11th cent.) to the patriarchs of AquileiaAquileia
, town, in Friuli–Venezia Giulia, NE Italy, near the Adriatic Sea. Founded in 181 B.C. by the Romans, it was a stronghold against the barbarians and a trade center. Later, the town was destroyed several times by invaders, notably by Attila (A.D. 452).
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, who made Udine their capital. In 1420 it went to Venice, and the name Friuli lost its political connotation. After the counts of Gorizia became extinct (1500), Emperor Maximilian I incorporated the eastern county into the Hapsburg possessions; attempts by Venice to acquire it were unsuccessful.

By the treaties of Campo Formio (1797) and Paris (1814, 1815) all Friuli became Austrian. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria ceded (1866) W Friuli (i.e., Udine prov.) to Italy. During World War I, Friuli was a battlefield. In 1919, E Friuli was also awarded to Italy; with Istria and Trieste it formed the region of Venezia GiuliaVenezia Giulia
, former region, 3,356 sq mi (8,692 sq km), NE Italy, on the Adriatic Sea. It was formed after World War I from part of the territories ceded by Austria to Italy in 1919, and included E Friuli, Trieste, Istria, and part of Carniola. Fiume was added in 1921.
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. The Italian peace treaty of 1947 gave E Friuli (but not Gorizia) to Yugoslavia, and it became part of the Yugoslav republic of Slovenia (now independent). The name Friuli was officially revived when Friuli–Venezia Giulia was formed as a region of Italy.

Friuli

a historic region of SW Europe, between the Carnic Alps and the Gulf of Venice: the W part (Venetian Friuli) was ceded by Austria to Italy in 1866 and Eastern Friuli in 1919; in 1947 Eastern Friuli (except Gorizia) was ceded to Yugoslavia