Patronage


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patronage

1. in politics
a. the practice of making appointments to office, granting contracts, etc.
b. the favours so distributed
2. Christianity the right to present a clergyman to a benefice

Patronage

 

in ancient Italy, a form of protection that in practice established the dependence of poor citizens and citizens with less than full rights upon wealthy citizens.

In the period of the disintegration of the clan system, members of impoverished clans, as well as some plebeians, placed themselves under the patronage of influential fellow citizens. In the period of the late Roman Empire, petty landowners or even whole villages, communities, and towns placed themselves under the patronage of various senators. By transferring their land to a patron and receiving it back in the form of a precarium (property held at the will of the grantor), petty landowners attempted to avoid burdensome taxation and protect themselves from oppression by officials, judges, and usurers. The patronage system is discussed by F. Engels in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21, page 149).


Patronage

 

(release on surety), in Soviet criminal law, one of the forms by which a person is freed from criminal responsibility when his actions did not have serious consequences and he does not present a great social danger. Upon petition of an organization or workers’ collective, the offender is turned over to that organization or collective for reeducation and correction by decision of a court or procurator or by decision of an investigator or agency of inquiry with the consent of a procurator. Release on surety is not possible for recidivists and persons who have been released on surety earlier. If a person so released does not justify the trust of the collective in the course of one year, the collective’s decision to terminate its patronage is sent to the court or procurator and the question of criminal responsibility is then reviewed (art. 9 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR).

Patronage

See also Philanthropy.
Alidoro
fairy godfather to Italian Cinderella. [Ital. Opera: Rossini, Cinderella, Westerman, 120–121]
Alphonso, Don
supports Bias in return for political favors. [Fr. Lit.: Gil Blas]
Dionysus
inspired men through wine; considered a patron of the arts. [Gk. Myth.: NCE, 767]
Fairy Godmother
maternal fairy abets Cinderella in ball preparations. [Fr. Fairy Tale: “Cinderella”]
References in periodicals archive ?
Senior scholars gathered to present studies and new perceptions on the topic of patronage, but the work presented was for the most part a recap of work published elsewhere previously.
the term income derived from sources other than patronage means incidental income derived from sources not directly related to the marketing, purchasing, or service activities of the cooperative association.
Second, limitations on patronage ensured that neither the president nor Congress could gain sufficient control of the federal workforce to gain the upper hand in the perennial political competition between the two branches.
The essays (contributed mainly by sociologists and arts administrators) offer interesting analyses and serve as useful sources of information about diverse traditions of patronage and specific case studies.
In other words, the Court was giving the patronage employees the same deal it has itself: get a job through politics then have it forever insulated from a turn of the political wheel.
On January 19, 2018, President of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation Sergey Katyrin solemnly presented the certificate of victory in the contest "100 projects under the patronage of the President of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation" to the General Director of "Malavit" LLC Tatyana Dvornikova.
On the occasion of the UNESCO General-Director's patronage, Sarajevo Winter Festival Director Ibrahim Spahic expressed his belief that the 25-year UNESCO patronage over the Sarajevo Winter Festival will contribute to a dignified marking of the 25 years of BiH's membership in UNESCO.
THE Nigerian Textile Manufacturers Association (NTMA), has decried the non-implementation of the Federal Government's Executive Order on the patronage of Made-in-Nigeria goods.
On Tueday, Nizwa College of Technology will graduate 1,135 students under the patronage of Dr.
BRUSSELS, Sept 7 (KUNA) -- Nearly 40 European trade unions, water and human rights networks and environmental groups from a dozen countries sent a letter Wednesday to the European Commission (EC) urging withdrawal of patronage from Watec, the Israeli water conference and exhibition to be held for the first time in Europe, September 21-23, Venice, Italy.
ROME, September 7, 2016 (WAFA) - European trade s, water, human rights and environmental groups have called on the European Commission (EC) to withdraw patronage from Watec, the Israeli water conference planned to be held for the first time in Europe in September, a press release said on Wednesday.
Cooperative have received the greatest patronage distribution in NorthStar's history," says co-op General Manager Mark Adam.