patron

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Related to Patrons: Patrons of the arts

patron

[Lat.,=like a father], one who lends influential support to some person, cause, art or institution. Patronage existed in various ancient cultures but was primarily a Roman institution. In Roman law the lord was patronus (protector or defender) in relation to his freedmen and to others, known as his clients, whom he represented in the senate and before tribunals. Under the Roman Empire the term was applied to persons like MaecenasMaecenas
(Caius Maecenas) , d. 8 B.C., Roman statesman and patron of letters. He was born (between 74 B.C. and 64 B.C.) into a wealthy family and was a trusted adviser of Octavian (Augustus), who employed Maecenas as his personal representative for various political missions.
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 who supported artists and writers. Perhaps the most munificent patronage occurred in Italy during the RenaissanceRenaissance
[Fr.,=rebirth], term used to describe the development of Western civilization that marked the transition from medieval to modern times. This article is concerned mainly with general developments and their impact in the fields of science, rhetoric, literature, and
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 under patrons such as the MediciMedici
, Italian family that directed the destinies of Florence from the 15th cent. until 1737. Of obscure origin, they rose to immense wealth as merchants and bankers, became affiliated through marriage with the major houses of Europe, and, besides acquiring (1569) the title
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, the SforzaSforza
, Italian family that ruled the duchy of Milan from 1450 to 1535. Rising from peasant origins, the Sforzas became condottieri and used this military position to become rulers in Milan. The family governed by force, ruse, and power politics.
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, and many popes. Francis IFrancis I,
1494–1547, king of France (1515–47), known as Francis of Angoulême before he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law, King Louis XII. Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor
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 of France and his sister Margaret of NavarreMargaret of Navarre
or Margaret of Angoulême
, 1492–1549, queen consort of Navarre; sister of King Francis I of France. After the death of her first husband she married (1527) Henri d'Albret, king of Navarre; their daughter was Jeanne d'Albret.
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 were distinguished patrons of art and letters; a famous English patron was Lord ChesterfieldChesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th earl of,
1694–1773, English statesman and author. A noted wit and orator, his long public career, begun in 1715, included an ambassadorship to The Hague (1728–32), a
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. Since ancient times Christians have honored patron saints as tutelary guardians of persons, institutions, places, and crafts. Historically, artists have depended on institutional (e.g., government and church) as well as individual patronage; Picasso's Guernica and Chagall's stained glass windows are examples of commissioned works. Universities and private foundations have also become important sources of patronage for artists.

patron

1. a customer of a shop, hotel, etc., esp a regular one
2. See patron saint
3. (in ancient Rome) the protector of a dependant or client, often the former master of a freedman still retaining certain rights over him
4. Christianity a person or body having the right to present a clergyman to a benefice
References in classic literature ?
'Patrons and Patronesses, and Vice-Patrons and Vice-Patronesses, and Deceased Patrons and Deceased Patronesses, and Ex-Vice-Patrons and Ex-Vice-Patronesses, what does it all mean in the books of the Charities that come pouring in on Rokesmith as he sits among 'em pretty well up to his neck!
From her life's experience gathered in various "business houses" the good woman had taken into her retirement an ideal of gentlemanliness as exhibited by the patrons of private-saloon bars.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace and go out into the road a- fishing; and as he always took me and young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth - the Maresco, as they called him - to catch a dish of fish for him.
The same night, such a man of regularity was the patron of The Young Amelia, the profits were divided, and each man had a hundred Tuscan livres, or about eighty francs.
His patron followed him with his eyes, and when his back was turned, smiled as he had never done when he stood beside the mirror.
The patron had not quite vanished, the bookseller had not yet taken his place.
"They must be in a hurry, for it is not the king," said the patron.
Submitting himself to the old tone of condescending authority, John Baptist, not at all steady on his legs as yet, advanced and put his hand in his patron's.
A very strong instance of which I shall give you in this address, in which I am determined to follow the example of all other dedicators, and will consider not what my patron really deserves to have written, but what he will be best pleased to read.
"The Sheriff should swear by his patron saint that he will not molest us," said Will Stutely; and his addition was carried unanimously.
It is the first time I ever gave my card to a gentleman." And, taking from her pocket a rather greasy porte-monnaie, she extracted from it a small glazed visiting card, and presented the latter to her patron. It was neatly inscribed in pencil, with a great many flourishes, "Mlle.
Downright English am I, Sir Knight, and downright English was my patron St Dunstan, and scorned oc and oui, as he would have scorned the parings of the devil's hoof downright English alone shall be sung in this cell.''