Patronage

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patronage

1. in politics
a. the practice of making appointments to office, granting contracts, etc.
b. the favours so distributed
2. Christianity the right to present a clergyman to a benefice
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Patronage

 

in ancient Italy, a form of protection that in practice established the dependence of poor citizens and citizens with less than full rights upon wealthy citizens.

In the period of the disintegration of the clan system, members of impoverished clans, as well as some plebeians, placed themselves under the patronage of influential fellow citizens. In the period of the late Roman Empire, petty landowners or even whole villages, communities, and towns placed themselves under the patronage of various senators. By transferring their land to a patron and receiving it back in the form of a precarium (property held at the will of the grantor), petty landowners attempted to avoid burdensome taxation and protect themselves from oppression by officials, judges, and usurers. The patronage system is discussed by F. Engels in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21, page 149).


Patronage

 

(release on surety), in Soviet criminal law, one of the forms by which a person is freed from criminal responsibility when his actions did not have serious consequences and he does not present a great social danger. Upon petition of an organization or workers’ collective, the offender is turned over to that organization or collective for reeducation and correction by decision of a court or procurator or by decision of an investigator or agency of inquiry with the consent of a procurator. Release on surety is not possible for recidivists and persons who have been released on surety earlier. If a person so released does not justify the trust of the collective in the course of one year, the collective’s decision to terminate its patronage is sent to the court or procurator and the question of criminal responsibility is then reviewed (art. 9 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Patronage

See also Philanthropy.
Alidoro
fairy godfather to Italian Cinderella. [Ital. Opera: Rossini, Cinderella, Westerman, 120–121]
Alphonso, Don
supports Bias in return for political favors. [Fr. Lit.: Gil Blas]
Dionysus
inspired men through wine; considered a patron of the arts. [Gk. Myth.: NCE, 767]
Fairy Godmother
maternal fairy abets Cinderella in ball preparations. [Fr. Fairy Tale: “Cinderella”]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Saeed Al Nabouda, Chief Projects Officer, Dubai Culture & Arts Authority, said that the strong response to the first-ever Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Patrons of the Arts Awards reiterates the unparalleled moral and financial support that backs the growth of the arts sector in Dubai.
The Patrons of the Arts Awards, which are now in their second year, honour patrons who demonstrate financial and in-kind contributions to the visual arts, film, literature and performing arts.
Patrons of the arts are a refined audience with the purchasing power to accommodate their interests--making them an ideal audience for a variety of high priced products including jewelry, furniture, travel, credit cards, electronics and financial services.
Thanks in large part to a group known is Patrons of the Arts in the Vatican Museums, who have thirteen chapters in the United States, an exhibit comprising nearly one hundred works of angelic beings has been touring across the United States.
The camp influenced the careers of young performers; and educated audiences and patrons of the arts.
The poem satirizes cowardly critics, hypocritical pedants, insipid patrons of the arts, and corrupt sycophants and caricatures Pope's contemporaries.
Through hard work, disciplined acquisitiveness, skillful marriages, and a culture of enlightened sobriety, the Bassermanns became powers of the economy, organizers of the public sphere, patrons of the arts, and arbiters of taste.
Dubai: The fourth cycle of the "Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Patrons of the Arts Awards" will be open for registration until March 1, to shine the light on those who have been a driving force in spreading art and culture across the city.
The awards included four categories: Distinguished Patrons of the Arts, Patrons of the Arts, Supporters of the Arts, and Friends of the Arts.
In line with the vision of its pioneering initiative, the Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Patrons of the Arts Awards, Dubai Culture encourages patrons, the heroes behind-the-scenes, to contribute towards the thriving film industry.
"''The Emirates Airline Festival of Literature was delighted to be involved in the first Patrons of the Arts Awards Literature Dinner - an evening which brought together like-minded people to celebrate the written word in all its forms and recognize the efforts of all those who are contributing to the literary scene here in Dubai," said Isobel Abulhoul, Festival Director, Emirates Airline Festival of Literature.
In an environment with many alternatives for patrons of the arts, opera thrives in a community with a critical mass of passionate and informed opera-goers.