patroon

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patroon

(pətro͞on`) [Du.,=patron or employer], in American history, the name given to a Dutch landowner in New Netherland who exerted manorial rights in colonial times. To encourage emigration of Dutch farmers to America, the Dutch West India Company, by a 1629 charter, granted large estates (16 mi/26 km of land along navigable rivers or 8 mi/13 km on each shore and extending inland as far as it proved convenient) to members of the company who would establish settlements of 50 persons within four years. These company members, called patroons, were granted many privileges that were feudal in nature—the right to hold land as a perpetual grant, the right to establish civil and criminal courts, and the right to appoint local officers. Settlers were exempt from public taxes for a decade, but they were specifically required to pay the patroon in money, goods, or services. Manufacturing was prohibited under heavy penalty, and commerce was restricted to a great extent. Before long several estates were established along the Delaware, Connecticut, and Hudson rivers. In 1640 the charter was revised by the Dutch West India Company; the size of the land grants was halved, manufacturing was permitted, and all Dutch inhabitants in good standing could obtain estates. Native American raids, mismanagement, and insufficient cooperation from the Dutch West India Company, however, caused the patroons to fail. The only patroonship that succeeded was Rensselaerswyck, a large estate on the Hudson, which remained in the hands of the Van Rensselaer family until the middle of the 19th cent. After New Netherland came under English control in 1664, the patroon system continued and underwent few changes until 1775, when patroons became proprietors of estates. Some characteristics of feudal tenure did remain, and this condition brought about increasing tension between landlord and tenant in New York state until the Antirent WarAntirent War,
in U.S. history, tenant uprising in New York state. When Stephen Van Rensselaer, owner of Rensselaerswyck, died in 1839, his heirs attempted to collect unpaid rents.
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 (1839–46) brought about important modifications.

Bibliography

See S. G. Nissenson, Patroon's Domain (1937, repr. 1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
The patroon system was especially strong in the Hudson Valley of New York and New Jersey, along with portions of other Mid Atlantic states.
Although all the patroons in the region were the targets of the antirenters, the full force of the revolt was directed against the van Rensselaers, far and away the biggest landowners, whose estate covered three-quarters of a million acres, extending twenty-four miles along the Hudson and twenty-four miles inland on both sides of the river.
Brands also ignores the many examples of localized authoritarianism long present in American life--from the Puritans' religious state to the feudalism of the patroons, from the tyranny of southern slave society to company towns--that have proved much more intrusive than anything perpetrated by the federal government.
If the design was not brought by stencil, it could have been transferred by one of the many patroons (design drawings) mentioned in the contracts for the altarpieces.
The last of eight generations of land-owning patroons, Van Rensselaer had been a commissioner overseeing the construction of the Erie and Champlain canals, opened in 1825.
As the population grew from about 100 patroons in 1643 to over 2,000 in Albany county by 1689, neither economic crisis nor a change in political masters could undermine substantially the original system and its control by those merchants and traders who were appointed to interpret and enforce the laws.
The Dutch <IR> PATROONS </IR> from 1839 to 1846 experienced difficulties in collecting rent from their New York tenants.
In this now forgotten issue, the tenants of the New York patroons, suffering hardships, refused to pay rent.
Houston 13 Society of Patroons of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
A few former players in the Northbridge Summer Basketball League played or went on to play professional basketball, including former Holy Cross star Keith Simmons, who currently plays in the European League, Dirk Koopman, a former Crusaders standout who played in Europe for a brief time, and former WC coach Rick Martin, who played for the Albany Patroons in the CBA.
He is in his 16th NBA season but also served as a head coach for the CBA's Albany Patroons and as an assistant coach for the NewJersey Nets.
The president would do well to study the fate of Peter Minuit, the Dutch governor who bought Manhattan Island from the Indians and eventually lost his job for granting too many privileges to the wealthy patroons and ignoring the plight of everyday folks in the New World.