(both: pät`tänē`), city (1990 pop. 41,605), capital of Pattani prov., S Thailand, on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, near the mouth of the Gulf of Thailand. It is a port and the center of a region producing most of the spices grown in Thailand, as well as rubber and coconuts. Tin is mined and smelted, salt is extracted, and nests for bird's-nest soup are harvested. The people are for the most part Malay Muslims.

Pattani was a seat of the SailendraSailendra
, name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia. The dynasty appeared in central Java in the 7th cent. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent. The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism, extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay
..... Click the link for more information.
 power during the Sailendra domination of the Malay Peninsula and later was the center of a Malay state, which was drawn into the Thai orbit. With AyutthayaAyutthaya
, or Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
, city (1990 pop. 61,185), capital of Ayutthaya prov., S central Thailand, on the Chao Phraya River. It is the trade center for a prosperous rice-growing region. Ayutthaya was the capital of a Thai kingdom founded c.
..... Click the link for more information.
, it was one of the first places in Siam opened to the Portuguese in the 16th cent. At first bound only by tenuous links of suzerainty to the courts of Ayutthaya and Bangkok, against which it was several times in revolt, the Pattani sultanate was annexed in 1902. The region has been the scene of attacks by Malay separatists (in the 1970s and 80s and again in the early 21st cent.).

References in periodicals archive ?
The explosion in Pattani province also wounded four other soldiers and blew the truck they were travelling in into pieces, with parts of it landing 100 metres away, police major Pompetch Chotiklang said.
A separatist insurgency in three southern provinces bordering Malaysia - Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat - has simmered for decades, leaving more than 6,500 dead since 2004.
The attackers initially set off firecrackers as a distraction before triggering the car bomb in the city of Pattani, said military spokesman Pramote Prom-in.
Pramoj Juichuay says the bomb was placed on the tracks and exploded when the train passed over it as it was passing a station in Pattani province at around 5:30 p.
One Thai person was killed and 30 wounded when two bombs exploded late on Tuesday near a hotel in the southern Thai coastal town of Pattani, police said, less than two weeks after a wave of unexplained bombings hit the south.
Thailand is a mainly Buddhist country, but the three southern provinces of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat are majority-Muslim and resistance to central government rule has existed there for decades, resurfacing violently in 2004.
Despite ongoing efforts by various actors to resolve it, violence and insecurity continues to be a part of everyday life for those living in Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and four districts of Songkhla.
Police Colonel Tanongsak Wansupha, commander of Pattani police, said the bomb was planted by insurgents, though, as with most attacks in the region, there was no claim of responsibility.
13 (BNA): The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has condemned the bomb blast that targeted a checkpoint in Khokpho village in the southern Thai province of Pattani, which resulted in a number of victims and injures.
The bomb exploded late Thursday evening in Khok Pho district of Pattani, one of three Muslim dominated provinces where insurgents are fighting for greater autonomy.
Les paramilitaires effectuaient une patrouille de routine dans le secteur de Sai Buri dans la province de Pattani, selon un porte-parole de la securite regionale.
But the independent Central Islamic Committee in Pattani denied that any of the four were rebels.