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Paul,1901–64, king of the Hellenes (1947–64), brother and successor of George IIGeorge II,
1890–1947, king of the Hellenes (1922–23, 1935–47), successor and eldest son of King Constantine I. When Constantine I was forced by the Allies to abdicate in 1917, George, also suspected of being pro-German, was passed over in favor of his younger
..... Click the link for more information. . He married (1938) Princess Frederika of Brunswick. During Paul's reign Greece followed a pro-Western policy, and the CyprusCyprus
, Gr. Kypros, Turk. Kıbrıs, officially Republic of Cyprus, republic (2015 est. pop. 1,161,000), 3,578 sq mi (9,267 sq km), an island in the E Mediterranean Sea, c.40 mi (60 km) S of Turkey and c.60 mi (100 km) W of Syria.
..... Click the link for more information. question was temporarily resolved. Paul was succeeded by his son, Constantine IIConstantine II,
1940–, king of the Hellenes; also known as Constantine XIII. He was appointed regent in 1964 and succeeded to the throne the same year on the death of his father, King Paul.
..... Click the link for more information. .
in Christian mythology, one of the apostles.
According to the Acts of the Apostles, Paul was born in Tarsus into a Jewish family. He was a zealous persecutor of the Christians, but as a result of the “miracle on the road to Damascus”—a light and a voice from heaven—he was converted to Christianity and changed his name from Saul to Paul. Subsequently, he preached Christianity in Asia Minor, Greece, Rome, and Spain. The church dates Paul’s death at the time of Nero’s persecutions in approximately A.D. 65. Fourteen epistles are ascribed to Paul, all included in the New Testament.
The dating and authorship of the epistles of Paul are quite controversial. Many researchers, such as the Soviet scholars R. Iu. Vipper, la. A. Lentsman, and I. A. Kryvelev, reject the authorship of Paul, regarding him as a mythical figure. They date the epistles from the mid-second century. The Soviet historian S. I. Kovalev, while leaving open the question of Paul’s authorship, does admit his real existence. Even the theological literature acknowledges that Paul’s Epistle to the Hebrews was not written by Paul and that the authorship of the pastoral epistles and several others ascribed to him is questionable. Paul’s correspondence with Seneca, who was a first-century Roman philosopher, is certainly of later derivation, composed during the fourth century.
The epistles of Paul express a trend (Paulinism) toward a radical break with Judaism. This trend was opposed to another tendency (Petrinism), in which certain elements of Judaism continued in Christianity. The epistles are also marked by a departure from the seditious mood of primitive Christianity: they recognize temporal authorities, and the second coming of Christ is postponed indefinitely.
A. P. KAZHDAN
(Paulus), popes of the Roman Catholic Church.
Paul III (Alessandro Farnese). Born February 1468, in Canino; died Nov. 10, 1549, in Rome. Created cardinal in 1493, he became pope in 1534.
Paul III waged an uncompromising struggle against the Reformation. In 1540 he recognized the Jesuit Order, and in 1542 he established the supreme inquisitional tribunal in Rome. The fanatic G. Caraffa, who later became Pope Paul IV, was appointed head of the Roman Inquisition. Paul III prepared and convoked the Council of Trent in 1545. Nepotism flourished under him. For example, he carved the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza out of the Papal States and gave it to his son, Pier Luigi Farnese.
Paul IV (Gian Pietro Caraffa). Born June 28, 1476, in Sant’ Angelo a Scala; died Aug. 18, 1559, in Rome. Created cardinal in 1536, he became pope in 1555. Before he was elected pope, Paul IV was head of the Roman Inquisition. He persecuted heretics with fanatical cruelty and fought against the Reformation. (During his papacy, torture and burning at the stake were common.) The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Index of Forbidden Books) was published for the first time in 1559 by order of Paul IV. When he died, the people threw his statue into the Tiber and burned down the prison of the Inquisition.
Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini). Born Sept. 26, 1897, in Concesio, near the city of Brescia; died Aug. 6, 1978, at Castel Gandolfo. He became pope in 1963.
Paul VI came from the family of a prominent figure in the Italian Catholic movement. In 1916 he graduated from a liceo and in 1920 from a seminary. He continued his education at the pontifical and state universities in Rome. From 1923 to 1954 he was in the Vatican diplomatic service. (In 1937 he became assistant secretary of state and in 1952 deputy secretary of state.) Montini became archbishop of Milan in 1954, and in 1958 he was consecrated a cardinal. He was elected pope on June 21, 1963, and crowned on June 30.
Paul VI advocated moderate reforms to adapt the Catholic Church to contemporary conditions. Between 1963 and 1965 he guided the sessions of the Ecumenical Council, which had been convoked in 1962 by his predecessor, John XXIII (seeVATICAN COUNCILS). Breaking with a tradition dating from 1870, according to which the popes did not leave the confines of the Vatican, Paul VI visited many countries after 1964, including Palestine, India, the USA, Colombia, Uganda, the Philippines, and Australia. He spoke out for a rapprochement (among churches and for peace among nations. In 1973, Paul VI enlarged the College of Cardinals to 147 members. He took some measures to reorganize the Curia Romana (the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae [Of the Government of the Universal Church, 1967]). Paul VI’s most important pronouncements were the encyclicals Ecclesiam Suam (1964), Populorum Progressio (1967), and Humanae Vitae (1968) and the apostolic letter “Octogesima Adveniens” (1971).