Paul Éluard

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Éluard, Paul

 

(pseudonym of Eugene Emile Paul Grindel). Born Dec. 14, 1895, in St. Denis, Seine Department; died Nov. 18, 1952, in Charenton-le-Pont. French poet. Member of the French Communist Party from 1942.

Éluard was drafted into the army in 1914; his impressions of the front formed the basis of his collection Duty and Alarm (1917). He published Poems for Peacetime in 1918, and in 1919 he turned to dadaism. The collections Animals and Their People, People and Their Animals (1920) and Examples (1921) contain many enigmatic, abstruse poems.

In late 1924, Éluard and such writers as A. Breton and L. Aragon became the heads of a group of surrealists (seeSURREALISM); although he did not fully share their platform, Eluard remained with the surrealists until 1938. His works became increasingly democratic in content, and in many respects they did not reflect the surrealist revolt against reason, language, and cultural heritage. In his intimate and philosophic lyric poetry of the 1920’s and 1930’s, including the collections Capital of Pain (1926) and Life Immediate (1932), Éluard attempted an interpretation of reality that was based on a Utopian dream about an all-powerful human miracle worker.

In 1936, Éluard opposed Franco’s revolt in Spain. He was called to duty in the army in 1939. After returning to occupied Paris, he wrote patriotic poetry, including the collection Open Book I, 1938–40 (1940), On the Lower Slopes (1942), and Open Book II (1942). He joined the Communist Party and worked in the underground press. The poem “Freedom” from his book Poetry and Truth (1942) became the poetic rallying cry of the Resistance. In the collections At the German Rendezvous (1942-45) and Worthy of Life (1944), the civic lyrics are inseparable from the love lyrics.

Éluard took part in the peace movement after the war. In the collections Hommages (1950), To Be Able to Say Everything (1951), and Phoenix (1951), he developed the themes of love and brotherhood and affirmed the civic responsibility of the poet. In 1951, he and P. Picasso published the collection The Face of Peace. He visited the USSR twice, in 1950 and 1952. Éluard was awarded the International Peace Prize in 1953.

WORKS

Oeuvres complètes, vols. 1–2. [Paris, 1968.]
In Russian translation:
Stikhi. Moscow, 1958.
Izbr. stikhotvoreniia. Moscow, 1961.
Stikhi. Moscow, 1971.

REFERENCES

Velikovskii, S. I. Kgorizontu vsekh liudei. Moscow, 1968.
Balashov, N. I. “Neotrazimost’ Eliuara.” In Poeziia sotsializma. Moscow, 1969.
P. Eliuar: Biobibliografich. ukazatel’. Moscow, 1963.
Eglin, H. Liebe und Inspiration im Werke von P. Eluard. Bern-Munich [1965].
Jean, R. Paul Eluard par lui-méme. [Paris, 1968.] Paul Eluard. Paris [1972].

M. N. VAKSMAKHER

References in periodicals archive ?
Laing, Langston Hughes, Yiannis Ritsos, Tasou Livaditi, Paul Eluard, Henry Scott Holland, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Dinos Christianopoulou, Tom Stoppard, and Constantinos Cavafy.
Examples include Fenigstein's setting of antifascist poetry by Paul Eluard in lit le jour se leva pour lui (p.
Andre Breton, Nusch Eluard, Valentine Hugo, Paul Eluard - Exquisite Corpse (Cadavre exquis), c1930 Many visitors will be familiar with the game consequences.
Xavis Kalandra, Stefan Zweig, Andre Breton, Paul Eluard, Edmund Husserl--the cosmopolitan encounters between avant-garde figures such as these who bridged different regions and cultures of Europe.
Image-based poetry of Jallali taken from his second language which is French means from words of Paul Valery, Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Verlaine, Rimbaud Autorun Jacques blade tip, Louis Aragon and Paul Eluard.
She concludes with a brief examination of his other wartime compositions, including the Violin Sonata dedicated to assassinated Spanish poet Lorca, the evocative Deux Poemes de Louis Aragon, and the composer's setting of Paul Eluard in Figure humaine (not performed until 1945 and often regarded as his finest a cappella choral work).
Choregraphe accomplie, elle a mis en scene de nombreux spectacles dans des salles prestigieuses, telles le Zenith de Paris, le Cafe de la Danse, l'Unesco, le New Morning, le Chabada, le theatre Paul Eluard, Masrah Al Madina, theatre Monnot.
ABOUT BLUE ORANGE GAMES Thierry Denoual and Julien Mayot founded Blue Orange Games in 2000, naming it after the Paul Eluard surrealist poem, "The Earth is Blue like an Orange.
The film's dialogues and voiceovers are replete with this sort of thing -- apparently taken from a poem by Paul Eluard entitled "Capitale de la douleur.
Un autre representant du mouvement surrealiste roumain, dont les contours ont ete tires a l'inspiration de Paul Eluard et de l'esprit du meme courant manifeste a Paris a ete Virgil Teodorescu.
It is interesting, for example, to learn who Celan was translating, say in 1958: Paul Eluard, Osip Mandelstam, and Sergei Yesenin.
Revealingly, perhaps, the second highest price was paid for a work marking another celebrated association--a portrait of the Surrealist poet Paul Eluard (1895-1952; Fig.