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Paul III,1468–1549, pope (1534–49), a Roman named Alessandro Farnese; successor of Clement VIIClement VII,
c.1475–1534, pope (1523–34), a Florentine named Giulio de' Medici; successor of Adrian VI. He was the nephew of Lorenzo de' Medici and was therefore first cousin of Pope Leo X.
..... Click the link for more information. . He was created cardinal by Alexander VIAlexander VI,
1431?–1503, pope (1492–1503), a Spaniard (b. Játiva) named Rodrigo de Borja or, in Italian, Rodrigo Borgia; successor of Innocent VIII. He took Borja as his surname from his mother's brother Alfonso, who was Pope Calixtus III.
..... Click the link for more information. , and his influence increased steadily. A very astute church diplomat, he directed his efforts chiefly in aid of the reforming party. With his election a new era in the papacy opened, for papal involvement in the Counter ReformationCounter Reformation,
16th-century reformation that arose largely in answer to the Protestant Reformation; sometimes called the Catholic Reformation. Although the Roman Catholic reformers shared the Protestants' revulsion at the corrupt conditions in the church, there was present
..... Click the link for more information. began. Paul favored a new council to reconcile the Protestants and reform the church. After elaborate preparations, countless intrigues, and several false starts the Council of Trent (see Trent, Council ofTrent, Council of,
1545–47, 1551–52, 1562–63, 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked to meet the crisis of the Protestant Reformation.
..... Click the link for more information. ) convened (1545). At his accession Paul appointed a special commission, made up of the most ardent reformers; this commission was valuable to the council for the information it had on actual conditions in Rome. Paul also patronized the newly founded Jesuits (see Jesus, Society ofJesus, Society of,
religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. Its members are called Jesuits. St. Ignatius of Loyola, its founder, named it Compañia de Jesús [Span.,=(military) company of Jesus]; in Latin it is Societas Jesu (abbr. S.J.).
..... Click the link for more information. ), the great agents of the Counter Reformation. The pope's interest in art was very great: he founded the Farnese PalaceFarnese Palace,
in Rome, designed by Antonio da Sangallo (see under Sangallo) for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (Pope Paul III). It was begun before 1514 and, after the architect's death, was continued by Michelangelo and completed by Giacomo della Porta.
..... Click the link for more information. , had MichelangeloMichelangelo Buonarroti
, 1475–1564, Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet, b. Caprese, Tuscany. Early Life and Work
Michelangelo drew extensively as a child, and his father placed him under the tutelage of Ghirlandaio, a respected artist of the day.
..... Click the link for more information. continue the decoration of the Sistine ChapelSistine Chapel
[for Sixtus IV], private chapel of the popes in Rome, one of the principal glories of the Vatican. Built (1473) under Pope Sixtus IV, it is famous for its decorations. By far the best-known achievements in the chapel are the work of Michelangelo.
..... Click the link for more information. , and rebuilt and repaved many streets in Rome. He was succeeded by Julius III.
original name Alessandro Farnese. 1468--1549, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1534--49). He excommunicated Henry VIII of England (1538) and inaugurated the Counter-Reformation by approving the establishment of the Jesuits (1540), instituting the Inquisition in Italy, and convening the Council of Trent (1545)