Paul Kruger


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Kruger, Paul

(Stephanas Johannes Paulus) (kro͞o`gər, Afrikaans stāfä`nəs yōhä`nəs pou`ləs krü`gər), 1825–1904, South African Transvaal statesman, known as Oom Paul. As a child he accompanied (1836) his family northward from the Cape Colony in the Great Trek that was eventually to cross the Vaal River and establish the Dutch-speaking republic of TransvaalTransvaal
, former province, NE South Africa. With the new constitution of 1994, it was divided into Eastern Transvaal (now Mpumalanga), Northern Transvaal (now Limpopo), Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Veereeniging (now Gauteng), and part of North West prov.
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 (1852). Kruger's life was closely tied to the development of the country; he was a pioneer, soldier, farmer, and politician. The Transvaal was annexed by Great Britain in 1877. Kruger at first cooperated with the British but shortly thereafter was dismissed because of his demands for retrocession. He was one of the triumvirate (with Piet Joubert and Martinius Pretorius) who negotiated the Pretoria agreement with the British (1881) granting the Boers (Afrikaners) independence. Kruger was elected president in 1883 and reelected in 1888, 1893, and 1898. His policy was one of continual resistance to the British, who came to be personified in South Africa by Cecil RhodesRhodes, Cecil John
, 1853–1902, British imperialist and business magnate. Business Career

The son of a Hertfordshire clergyman, he first went to South Africa in 1870, joining his oldest brother, Herbert, on a cotton plantation in Natal.
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. Colonization of Rhodesia N of the Transvaal and the increasing importance of gold mining merely brought much greater resistance on Kruger's part to Rhodes's dream of a unified South Africa. In the 1890s, Kruger adopted a stringent policy against the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders who were settling in the Transvaal. The Jameson Raid (see Jameson, Sir Leander StarrJameson, Sir Leander Starr,
1853–1917, British colonial administrator and statesman in South Africa. He went to Kimberley (1878) as a physician, became associated with Cecil Rhodes in his colonizing ventures, and was appointed (1891) administrator of Mashonaland. On Dec.
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) into the Transvaal (Dec., 1895), undertaken with Rhodes's knowledge, created an international crisis. The Kaiser congratulated Kruger (in the "Kruger telegram") for the successful repulsion of the British, with the implication that Germany had a right to interfere in the Transvaal. The message caused great indignation in England. Kruger fought in the early stages of the South African WarSouth African War
or Boer War,
1899–1902, war of the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State against Great Britain. Background
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, but in 1900 he went to Europe on a Dutch cruiser in a vain effort to enlist aid for his country. He died an exile in Switzerland.

Bibliography

See his memoirs (tr. 1902, repr. 1969); biography by M. Nathan (1941); studies by J. S. Marais (1962), D. M. Schreuder (1969), and C. T. Gordan (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Die twee tonele word gekenmerk deur die afwisselende gebruik van twee tale wat deurgaans volgehou word, naamlik Alfred Milner wat in Engels praat, Paul Kruger wat deurgaans Nederlands praat en Abraham Fischer wat as tolk soms in Engels en soms in Nederlands praat.
Perhaps the most impressive of his poems is an epic he composed shortly after the end of the South African War entitled Paul Kruger's dream, which explores the exploits of the Boer general Paul Kruger throughout his life, from the beginnings of the Great Trek in 1838 to his eventual demise at the end of the South African War in 1902.
Paul Kruger, a senior finance partner, will be transferring from the firm's New York office.
KRUGER BUNKERS (HOLE 10): Built during the Boer War of 1899-1902 when the British were fighting in the Transvaal, whose president was Paul Kruger. The nearby bunkers are Mrs Kruger and Kruger's mistress.
Kruger Bunkers (Hole 10) - Built during the Boer War of 1899-1902 when the British were fighting in the Transvaal, whose president was Paul Kruger.
The former portrays President Paul Kruger's tenacious fight against British domination in South Africa and British atrocities during the Boer War.
Paul Kruger's years as a private citizen and farmer in Rustenburg and those of Abel Erasmus in the Ohrigstad strongly suggest that the search for profitable endeavors in the more removed areas of the Transvaal often aggravated landlord violence.
Each has its own grid, often with small block sizes - once Paul Kruger, president of the Boer Republic of the Transvaal, had reluctantly acceded to the formation of a new city to exploit the gold reef, he thought it might as well have as many prime corner pitches as possible.
Paul Kruger, the first President of the Transvaal Republic, established the Sabi Game Reserve in the Transvaal Lowveld in 1898.
William II of Germany, with characteristic bad judgment, gratuitously sent a telegram of congratulations to the Boer leader, Paul Kruger (1825-1904), on the capture of Jameson.
Stephen Paul Kruger, father of the groom, served as best man.
The cortege will also pass near the one-time home of Paul Kruger, the father of the Afrikaner nation.