Paul Natorp

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Natorp, Paul


Born Jan. 24, 1854, in Düsseldorf; died Aug. 17, 1924, in Marburg. German idealist philosopher. Head, along with his teacher, H. Cohen, of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism. Professor at the University of Marburg from 1885.

Natorp interpreted the Kantian concept of the thing-in-itself as merely a thought of a limit (Grenzbegriff), an incentive for scientific knowledge. Correspondingly, the fundamental Kantian distinction between a priori forms of sense experience and categories of reason is eliminated and converted into a purely logical problem of how the entire content of scientific knowledge is determined by the initial act of thinking (primary source)— by the linking of opposite activities (differentiation and unification). Natorp considered mathematical analysis a classic example of scientific knowledge, seeing in the history of mathematics and natural science a tendency to supplant all specific objects of investigation with constructions of pure thought.

Natorp evaluated ancient philosophy, especially the works of Plato, in the spirit of modern idealism. In particular, he pointed out the resemblance of Plato’s method to the Kantian transcendental method as interpreted by the Marburg school.

Natorp devoted considerable attention to what is known as social pedagogy, the latter being closely related to ethical socialism, which originated within the Marburg school. The basic idea in Natorp’s social pedagogy is the education of the individual as a participant in the endless movement of humanity toward an ideal society, where each individual would be viewed not only as a means but as an end as well. Natorp’s sociopolitical views are a variation of bourgeois liberalism.


Platons Ideenlehre, 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1921.
Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Sozialpädagogik, 2nd ed., vols. 1–3. Stuttgart, 1922.
Philosophie; Ihr Problem und ihre Probleme, 3rd ed. Göttingen, 1921.
Die logischen Grundlagen der exakten Wissenschaften, 3rd ed. Leipzig, 1923.
Philosophie und Pädagogik, 2nd ed. Marburg, 1923.
Pestalozzi, 5th ed. Leipzig-Berlin, 1927.
Philosophische Systematik. Hamburg, 1958.
In Russian translation:
Sotsial’naia pedagogika. St. Petersburg, 1911.
Kul’tura naroda i kul’tura lichnosti. St. Petersburg, 1912.
“Kant i Marburgskaia shkola.” In Novye idei ν filosofii, anthology 5. St. Petersburg, 1913.


Sovremennaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia. Moscow, 1972. Pages 38–43.
Grafe, I. Das Problem des menschlichen Seins in der Philosophie P. Natorps. Würzburg, 1933.
Ruhloff, J. P. Natorps Grundlegung der Pddagogik. Freiburg im Breisgau, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
This approach has a venerable tradition, going back to the Marburg school of Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, contrasting with ontological interpretations offered by thinkers such as Heidegger and more recently Guyer.
Kim discusses the key question of the influence of Plato on Neo-Kantianism and on phenomenology, and focuses on the virtues of the reading of Plato of Paul Natorp, a member of the Marburg school, and on Heidegger's criticisms of that reading.
The well-known thesis concerning the existence of an onto-theological structure of metaphysics appeared at that precise moment, as a result of Heidegger's participation in debates, opposing thinkers such as Werner Jaeger and Paul Natorp.
4) The numerous and quite diverse neo-Kantian philosophers--such as Hermann yon Helmholtz, Eduard Zeller, Albert Lange, and Alois Riehl--and schools--the neo-Herbartian and their journal, the Zeitschrift fur exacte Philosophie, (5) the neo-Freisean like Nelson, the Southwest (Windelband, Rickert), Marbourg (Hermann Cohen, Paul Natorp, Ernst Cassirer, Albert Gorland, and Rudolf Stammler)--understood the "Back to Kant
Nonetheless the difference between a "system" and a "systematic" (noun) should not be obliterated: "Systematic, not system," writes Paul Natorp in Philosophische Systematik (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 1958), 1.
The course concludes with a critique of the Marburg neo-Kantian Paul Natorp and Husserl's phenomenology, which "with its view that consciousness, life experiences, can be absolutely given, confuses a requirement with its only possible mode of fulfillment" (p.
At Marburg he experienced the ferment of current existentialist and phenomenological ideas, affecting even formerly idealistic and systematic thinkers like Nicolai Hartmann and Paul Natorp, under whom Gadamer completed his dissertation on Plato, Das Wesen der Lust nach den platonischen Dialogen [The Essence of Pleasure according to the Platonic Dialogues], in 1922.