Paul VI

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Paul VI: John Paul I

Paul VI,

1897–1978, pope (1963–78), an Italian (b. Concesio, near Brescia) named Giovanni Battista Montini; successor of John XXIIIJohn XXIII, Saint,
1881–1963, pope (1958–63), an Italian (b. Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo) named Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; successor of Pius XII. He was of peasant stock.
..... Click the link for more information.

Prepapal Career

The son of a prominent newspaper editor, he was ordained in 1920. Later he did advanced studies in Rome and entered (1922) the Vatican secretariat of state, in which he served for 32 years. After 1944, when Pius XIIPius XII,
1876–1958, pope (1939–58), an Italian named Eugenio Pacelli, b. Rome; successor of Pius XI. Ordained a priest in 1899, he entered the Vatican's secretariat of state.
..... Click the link for more information.
 acted as his own secretary of state, Montini became especially influential as one of the two prosecretaries on whom the pope relied. As archbishop of Milan (1954–63) he showed particular concern with social problems and worked to improve relations between workers and employers. He was created a cardinal in 1958.


The Second Vatican Council

Elected pope in June, 1963, Paul immediately demonstrated his intention of continuing the reforms of his predecessor, John XXIII. He reconvened the Second Vatican Council (see Vatican Council, SecondVatican Council, Second,
popularly called Vatican II,
1962–65, the 21st ecumenical council (see council, ecumenical) of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope John XXIII and continued under Paul VI.
..... Click the link for more information.
) and supervised the carrying out of many of its reforms, such as the vernacularization and reform of the liturgy. With the aim of continuing the work of the council after it ended, he instituted an international synod of bishops, and bishops were instructed to set up councils of priests in their own dioceses. In addition, considerable powers of dispensation were devolved from the Roman Curia onto the bishops, the rules on fasting and abstinence were relaxed, and some of the restrictions on intermarriage were lifted. A commission on canon law revision was also established.

International Relations

In 1964, Paul VI made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land; he was the first pope in over 150 years to leave Italy. That historic journey was followed by trips to India (1964), the United States (1965), where he addressed the United Nations, and other parts of the world, including Africa (1969) and Southeast Asia (1970). Relations between the Vatican and the Communist world were improved; Communist leaders visited the Vatican for the first time, and in 1971 Cardinal MindszentyMindszenty, József
, 1892–1975, Hungarian prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was bishop of Veszprém during the German occupation of Hungary in World War II.
..... Click the link for more information.
, whose presence in the U.S. embassy in Budapest had long bedeviled church-state relations in Hungary, was finally persuaded to go to Rome.

Reassertions of Papal Primacy

The broader international outlook of the Vatican under Paul VI was matched by a new ecumenism. The pope met with the leaders of other churches and addressed (1969) the World Council of Churches, and limited doctrinal agreements were reached with the Anglicans and Lutherans. Such accords, however, did not represent any modification of the papal claim to spiritual leadership of the whole Christian Church, nor of the doctrine of papal infallibility. In fact, Pope Paul issued frequent reassertions of papal primacy in the face of growing dissent within the Roman Catholic Church itself.

In 1968, in the encyclical Humanae Vitae, Paul reaffirmed the church's long-standing ban on contraception. The encyclical, a disappointment to many liberals within the church, raised a storm of protest, and many national hierarchies openly modified the statement. In the ferment that ensued, liberals also raised questions about priestly celibacy, divorce, and the role of women in the church—all issues on which Paul upheld the traditional position of the church. The dispute developed into a real contest of strength between the Vatican and the Dutch hierarchy in particular, which in 1970 endorsed the marriage of priests and the admission of women into the priesthood. The synod of bishops in 1971 supported the pope's stand on priestly celibacy, but a sizable minority were opposed. At the synod of bishops of 1974, assembled to discuss "evangelization in the modern world," Pope Paul disapproved the bishops' proposal for greater autonomy for the local churches. He was succeeded briefly by John Paul IJohn Paul I,
1912–78, pope (1978), an Italian (b. Canale d'Agordo) named Albino Luciani; successor of Paul VI. Born into a poor, working-class family, he trained at local seminaries and at the Gregorian Univ. in Rome.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and then by John Paul IIJohn Paul II, Saint
1920–2005, pope (1978–2005), a Pole (b. Wadowice) named Karol Józef Wojtyła; successor of John Paul I. He was the first non-Italian pope elected since the Dutch Adrian VI (1522–23) and the first Polish and Slavic pope.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Paul VI was beatified by Pope Francis in 2014.


See his Christian in the Material World (tr. 1963), Dialogues (tr. 1964), The Church (tr. 1964), and The Pope Speaks (tr. 1968). See also W. Wynn, Keepers of the Keys: John XXIII, Paul VI, and John Paul II (1988); J. E. Smith, Humanae Vitae, a Generation Later (1991).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

Paul VI

original name Giovanni Battista Montini. 1897--1978, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1963--1978)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
They are John XXIII, who was the pope during 1958 reconstruction of the cathedral; Paul VI, who celebrated Mass at the cathedral in 1970; and John Paul II, who celebrated Mass at the cathedral in 1981 and elevated it to a minor basilica.
Last year, Pope Francis canonized Paul VI, martyred El Salvador archbishop Oscar Romero and five others.
Pope John XXIII, who was the pope during the rebuilding and dedication of the cathedral in 1958; then Blessed Pope Paul VI, who celebrated Mass at the cathedral in 1970 while St.
Emirati singer Hussain Al Jassmi arrives to perform in the Paul VI Hall at the Vatican during the Christmas concert Image Credit: AP Pop singer Anastacia, left, performs with Alessandra Amoroso in the Paul VI Hall at the Vatican during the Christmas concert Image Credit: AP Alvaro Soler performs in the Paul VI Hall at the Vatican during the Christmas concert Image Credit: AP View gallery as list
He took the style Paul VI and immediately announced the continuation of Vatican II.
Pope Paul VI will be canonized as a saint by Pope Francis on Sunday, Oct.
Paul VI began his life in 1897 as Giovanni Battista Montini, the son of an Italian parliamentarian from northern Italy.
However, the roots of the current crisis lie in the mid-'60s--when Paul VI issued not only Humanae Vitae but also, as Dr.
The move comes after the Pope approved a miracle credited to the intercession of Paul VI, who died in 1978 after a 15-year pontificate.
Mahieu takes the reader on a detailed journey of those historic events that Paul VI initiated, specifically with the Orthodox Church--in fact, he explicitly confines himself to the greater Byzantine Orthodox Churches, the Greek and the Russian, excluding, for simple reasons of space, the ancient oriental orthodox churches.
Especially under Pius XII (1939-1958) and his successors, Coppa traces dramatic improvement of popular democracy from the Vatican's perspective--a development largely fueled by cold war exigencies and the desire to stem the tide of "godless communism." He also dwells on the strategy of dialing back anti-communist rhetoric under John XXIII, Paul VI, and John Paul II, each of whom lamented the extreme inequality and the North-South hemispheric divide produced by democratic capitalism's triumph.
As private secretary to three Popes - Paul VI, John Paul I and John Paul II, Magee is the only man to hold such a position in Vatican history.