Paul von Hindenburg

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Hindenburg, Paul von

(hĭn`dənbûrg, Ger. poul fən hĭn`dənbo͝ork), 1847–1934, German field marshal and president (1925–34), b. Poznan (then in Prussia). His full name was Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Hindenburg und Beneckendorff. He fought in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and was appointed (1878) to the general staff. Though retired after 1911, he was made commander in East Prussia early in World War I. General LudendorffLudendorff, Erich
, 1865–1937, German general. A disciple of Schlieffen, he served in World War I as chief of staff to Field Marshal Hindenburg and was largely responsible for German military decisions.
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, who was his chief of staff throughout the war, was the real author of Hindenburg's victories. Victory in the battle of TannenbergTannenberg
, Pol. Stębark, village, Warmińsko-Mazurskie prov., NE Poland, near Olsztyn. Formerly in East Prussia, it was transferred (1945) by the Potsdam Conference to Polish administration. Two important battles were fought there.
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 (Aug., 1914) over a much larger Russian force was followed (1914–15) by German occupation of Poland and part of the Baltic provinces. As commander in chief of the German armies in the East from Sept., 1914, Hindenburg's prestige was greatly enhanced by these victories. In 1916, Hindenburg, by then a field marshal, succeeded General FalkenhaynFalkenhayn, Erich von
, 1861–1922, German military officer. Minister of war from 1906 to 1915, he succeeded (1914) Moltke as chief of the German general staff. He was successful on the Eastern front during World War I, but after the disaster at Verdun (1916) he was
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 as commander of all German armies; Ludendorff was made quartermaster general. Subsequently, the two men became virtual dictators of Germany, intervening in civilian affairs, regulating labor, and mobilizing the rest of the economy for total warfare. In the military sphere they stemmed the Allied advance in the West and consolidated the Hindenburg Line, running roughly from Lens through Saint-Quentin to Reims. Romania was crushed, and Russia withdrew from the war (1917). From March to July, 1918, Hindenburg launched a costly offensive into France, but the Allied counteroffensive, spearheaded by fresh American troops, led to the German defeat and surrender. Although Ludendorff was forced to resign in Oct., 1918, Hindenburg remained in office. After the overthrow of the emperor (November), Hindenburg and the army swore an oath of allegiance to the republican government. Although Hindenburg was to be tried as a war criminal under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the special German court at Leipzig never even indicted him. After the death of the German president Freidrich Ebert in 1925, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for the office by a coalition of nationalists, Prussian Junkers, and other conservative groups. As president, his powers were very limited. In 1932 he was reelected with the help of his chancellor, Heinrich BrüningBrüning, Heinrich
, 1885–1970, German chancellor. Elected to the Reichstag in 1924, he was a leader of the Catholic Center party and a fiscal expert. In 1930 he was appointed chancellor of the Reich to put German finances in order.
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. Shortly after the election, at the instigation of his advisers, Hindenburg dismissed Brüning. Finally, in Jan., 1933, the nearly senile president, fearing civil war, gave in to his advisers and appointed Adolf HitlerHitler, Adolf
, 1889–1945, founder and leader of National Socialism (Nazism), and German dictator, b. Braunau in Upper Austria. Early Life

The son of Alois Hitler (1837–1903), an Austrian customs official, Adolf Hitler dropped out of high school, and
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 chancellor. Hindenburg continued as a figurehead until his death.

Bibliography

See J. W. Wheeler-Bennett, The Wooden Titan (1936, repr. 1967), A. Dorpalen, Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic (1964).

Hindenburg, Paul Von

 

(Paul von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg). Born Oct. 2, 1847, in Posnan; died Aug. 2, 1934, in Neudeck. German military and political figure, a general field marshal (1914). Born into the family of a Prussian officer.

Hindenburg graduated from military school. He took part in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. During World War I (1914-18), he became commander of the Eighth German Army in East Prussia at the end of August 1914 and of all the troops on the Eastern Front in November of that year. In August 1916 he became the chief of the General Staff, becoming in effect the commander in chief. Having allied themselves with rightist Social Democratic leaders, the militarists, headed by Hindenburg, cruelly suppressed the revolutionary workers in Germany during the November Revolution of 1918. In 1925 a bloc of rightist parties achieved the election of Hindenburg to the presidency of the Weimar Republic. Hindenburg supported military-monarchist and fascist organizations; he was honorary chairman of the Steel Helmet military organization. Hindenburg’s policies prompted the rebirth of German military potential and the restoration of Germany’s military power. In 1932, aided by rightist Social Democratic leaders, he was again elected president. On Jan. 30, 1933, Hindenburg transferred power to the fascists, entrusting the formation of the government to Hitler.

WORKS

Aus meinem Leben. Wiesbaden [1933]. In Russian translation, Vospominaniia, Petrograd, 1922.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed. (See Index, part 2, p. 428.)
Rozanov, G. L. Ocherki noveishei istorii Germanii. Moscow, 1959.