Pavel Kiselev

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Kiselev, Pavel Dmitrievich


Born Jan. 8 (19), 1788, in Moscow; died Nov. 14 (26), 1872, in Paris. Russian statesman and count.

Kiselev was a participant in the Patriotic War of 1812. In 1814 he became an aide-de-camp to Emperor Alexander I. In 1816 he presented the tsar with a memorandum for the gradual emancipation of the peasantry from serfdom. After 1819 he was chief of staff of the Second Army, which was quartered in the Ukraine. There he was close to members of the Southern Society of the Decembrists, especially P. I. Pestel’, although he was not aware of the existence of the society. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, he was charged with the administration of Moldavia and Walachia, where he carried out a series of progressive reforms. Beginning in 1835 he was a regular member of all secret government committees formed to discuss the peasant question. In that year, a secret committee under his leadership drafted a plan for the gradual abolition of serfdom through the grant of personal freedom to the peasantry and government regulation of their land allotments and obligations. The plan met opposition from the serf-owning pomeshchiki (landowners). In 1837 he became minister of state properties, and from 1837 to 1841 he carried out a reform in the administration of state peasants. Parish schools established in settlements of government peasants came to be known as Kiselev schools. From 1856 to 1862 he was the Russian ambassador to Paris, and in 1862 he retired.


Druzhinin, N. M. Gosudarstvennye kresfiane i reforma P. D. Kiseleva, vols. 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1946–58.
Zabolotskii-Desiatovskii, A. P. Graf P. D. Kiselev i ego vremia, vols. 1–4. St. Petersburg, 1882.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
A major part of Hughes's legacy as a historian--especially clear in her monograph on Peter the Great--was the demonstration of the virtues and vibrancy of biography as a mode of historical writing and an appreciation of the ways in which quirks of personality shape history "from above." Simon Dixon's and Patrick O'Meara's contributions to the volume take an explicitly biographical approach to two quite different public figures: General Pavel Kiselev (1788-1872), who was forced to hide his liberal sympathies in a repressive political context, and the "Mad Monk" Iliodor (S.
There was, however, considerable sympathy for their co-religionists among such Russian generals as Petr Wittgenshtein and Pavel Kiselev, as well as support for the Greek cause among the Decembrists who hoped that Ypsilantis would trigger rebellion elsewhere.
She shows how Pestel's career benefited from his closeness to Vittgenshtein and explores the young adjutant's relationship with other generals, including most crucially with Pavel Kiselev. The two became friends; and their shared goals for the army's development in terms of training, supplying, billeting, and, above all, organizing a military police force (primarily to combat corruption and smuggling among senior officers) are explored in detail.