Pavel Vinogradov


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Vinogradov, Pavel Gavrilovich

 

Born Nov. 18 (30), 1854, in Kostroma; died Dec. 19, 1925, in Paris. Russian positivist historian; researcher in the history of medieval Western Europe, especially the history of England; pedagogue.

Vinogradov became a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1914 and was a member of several foreign academies. In 1884 he became a professor at Moscow University. A proponent of university autonomy, he resigned in 1902 and went to Great Britain. He became a professor at Oxford University in 1903. During the Russian Revolution of 1905-07 he swung drastically from bourgeois liberalism to-ward reaction, a change which found its expression in the “Political Letters” that he published in Russkie vedomosti (Russian Records) in 1905. In 1908 he returned to Moscow University, becoming simultaneously a professor at Moscow and Oxford universities. Vinogradov opposed Stolypin’s reactionary policy which was leading to an exacerbation of class contradictions in the countryside. In 1911 he resigned once more in protest against the dismissal of several professors. After the October Revolution, Vinogradov became a British subject.

In his master’s dissertation, The Origin of Feudalism in Italy (1880; written in Russian as The Origin of Feudal Relations in Lombard Italy}, Vinogradov investigated the so-called Romanic explanation of the origins of feudalism, and in his doctoral dissertation Investigations on the Social History of England in the Middle Ages (in Russian, 1887) and in the related book Villainage in England (1892, in English) he examined the so-called Germanic explanation of the origins of feudalism; in so doing he avoided the one-sidedness that characterized the conceptions of the Romanists as well as the conceptions of the Germanists. Vinogradov’s liberalism made him extremely interested in the fate of the obshchina (peasant commune) in Russia and the conditions of its transition from feudalism to capitalism, as well as in the history of Western European medieval communities. Contradicting F. Seebohm, Vinogradov showed that the beginning of the Middle Ages in England was characterized not by the domi-nation of the serf-owning estate but by the predominance of the free communities and that the social relations in the early Middle Ages developed from freedom to servitude. Vinogradov presented a characterization of the English feudal estate, the manor, which was classic for his time. In his later works, such as The Growth of the Manor (1905, in English; Russian translation The Medieval Estate in England, 1911) and English Society in the llth Century (1908, in English), Vinogradov tried to show that “social harmony” reigned on the manor. Vinogradov’s publication of numerous documents on the agrarian history of England from British archives is extremely important. As acknowledged by British historians themselves, Vinogradov, as it were, opened their own history to the British.

WORKS

Villainage in England. Oxford, 1892.
English Society in the llth Century. Oxford, 1908.
Collected Papers, vols. 1-2. Oxford, 1928.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 11, pp. 225-30.
Kosminskii, E. A. Issledovaniia po agrarnoi istorii Anglii XIII v. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947. Chapter 1.

M. A. ALPATOV

References in periodicals archive ?
According to Pavel Vinogradov, he and his fellow Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin and Nasa astronaut Chris Cassidy of the Soyuz capsule, which landed in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, flew blind after undocking from ISS after losing all data about their height from the ground, News24.
EXPEDITION 36 LANDS: Expedition 36 Commander Pavel Vinogradov and Flight Engineer Alexander Misurkin of the Russian Federal Space Agency and NASA Flight Engineer Chris Cassidy landed safely on the steppe of Kazakhstan on Sept.
The spaceship carrying commander Pavel Vinogradov and flight engineer Alexander Misurkin of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and NASA flight engineer Chris Cassidy landed in the Kazakh steppe at 8:58 am (0158 GMT), according to DPA.
Space Station crew lands after 166 days in space Expedition 36 crew members Chris Cassidy of NASA and Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin of the Russian Federal Space Agency have returned to Earth from the International Space Station, landing safely in Kazakhstan at 10:58 p.
Russians Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin landed on schedule at 8:58 am Kazakh time (0258 GMT) in the Kazakh steppe, along with American Chris Cassidy.
The new trio will join Russian cosmonauts Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin, and NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, who have been aboard the station since late March.
Russian cosmonauts Pavel Vinogradov, Alexander Misurkin and Roman Romanenko make up the rest of the crew.
Pavel Vinogradov, Alexander Misurkin and Nasa's Chris Cassidy took off from Kazakhstan for their five-month stay in space.
Carrying Russian cosmonauts Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin and the NASA astronaut Christopher Cassidy, the spaceship is scheduled to dock with the International Space Station (ISS) only six hours or four rotations around the Earth after the launch by a "bee-line" scheme, said the space agency.
By the turn of the century, historians such as Pavel Vinogradov (1854-1925), a specialist on medieval England, or Nikolai Kareev (1850-1931), a historian of the French Revolution, had made such distinguished names for themselves in the West that the former held the Henry Maine Chair at Oxford from 1903 until his death in 1925, and the latter undertook research on the French peasantry and was published in France (as was Vinogradov in Great Britain).
Ansari returned with Russian cosmonaut Pavel Vinogradov and US astronaut Jeff Williams.
Her ten-day adventure ended early yesterday when she touched down in a Soyuz vehicle on the steppes of Kazakhstan along with Russian cosmonaut Pavel Vinogradov and US astronaut Jeff Williams.