conditioning

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conditioning:

see learninglearning,
in psychology, the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs as a result of practice or experience. Learning is distinguished from behavioral changes arising from such processes as maturation and illness, but does apply to motor skills,
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.

conditioning

a term used in LEARNING THEORY or BEHAVIOURISM meaning the process of training or changing behaviour by association and reinforcement. There are two basic types of conditioning – classical and operant.

Classical conditioning was defined by I. Pavlov (1911) in his research on the salivary reflex in dogs. He observed that if a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that they become ‘associated’, then the NS develops the same ability to evoke a response as the UCS. Thus the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the response becomes a conditioned response (CR). This type of conditioning occurs only in involuntary behaviours such as salivation, sweating, heart rate and other behaviours controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and such a conditioned response may therefore be known as a CONDITIONED REFLEX. Reinforcement is delivered regardless of response, as it precedes it and is typically also the UCS (food in the case of Pavlovs experiment).

Operant or instrumental conditioning was defined and extensively researched by B.F. Skinner (1953). It involves training voluntary responses as the reinforcement is only delivered after the response and is contingent upon the response. Learning or conditioning involves the development of an association or bond between a stimulus and a response by reinforcing responses when they occur. Because reinforcement follows response, respondent behaviour can be manipulated by varying when the reinforcement is given (schedules of reinforcement). Learning is more resistant to extinction if the schedule of reinforcement used in training is related to the responses and is unpredictable. An example of this is gambling on a fruit machine. Extinction is the fading and disappearance of behaviour through non-reinforcement, e.g. socially unacceptable behaviour should be disregarded and not reinforced. Behaviour can be shaped towards a desirable end by the reinforcement of successive approximations to this. In this way, animals can be taught to do ‘tricks’ which would not be found in their normal repertoire of behaviour. Shaping principles underlie much of the control we exert over each other behaviour, especially childrens.

conditioning

[kən′dish·ən·iŋ]
(electronics)
Equipment modifications or adjustments necessary to match transmission levels and impedances or to provide equalization between facilities.
(graphic arts)
Restoration of microfilm for use after it has been stored for a period of time.
(science and technology)
Subjecting a material or organism to a stipulated treatment or stimulus so that it will respond in a uniform and desired manner to subsequent testing or processing.

conditioning

Extra cost options in a private telephone line that improve performance by reducing distortion and amplifying weak signals.
References in periodicals archive ?
2006), every experiment that tested the effects of telencephalic ablation on Pavlovian conditioning did not find any impairment of the learning process.
2004) Pavlovian Conditioning of Muscular Responses in Chronic Pain Patients: Central and Peripheral Correlates.
In a law enforcement setting, Pavlovian conditioning involves using a systematic series of desensitization techniques and rewards to condition subjects to overcome their natural reluctance to use deadly force.
Pavlovian conditioning pairs a neutral stimulus, (CS) with another, unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that has some beneficial or harmful effect which produces a response (UCR).
He emphasizes studying context as if this were a challenge to psychology, although it is already a part of the mainstream (see Bouton, 1933, published in one of the most conservative psychological journals, where a survey of Pavlovian conditioning has context as the first word of the title).
Peak-shift has also been obtained after Pavlovian conditioning (Weiss and Weissman, 1992), which is a form of associative learning that involves neither reward nor punishment of behavior.
Nonconscious associative learning: Pavlovian conditioning of the skin conductance responses to masked fear-relevant facial stimuli.
Part I, "Learning to Predict Important Events," digs into Pavlovian conditioning.
Current research in Pavlovian conditioning of human complex behavior has shown that, as Rescorla once affirmed, "Pavlovian conditioning is not what we think it is" (Rescorla 1988).
Washington, Nov 28 ( ANI ): Researchers have taken a significant step forward in unraveling the mechanisms of Pavlovian conditioning and understanding this will help understand how memories form and, ultimately, provide better treatments to improve memory in all ages.
The design of Experiment 1 was based on standard Pavlovian conditioning designs in which the cue is followed (or not followed) by the outcome, regardless of participants' responding.
For instance, Murphy, Baker, and Fouquet (2001) used an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedure to explore context conditioning in a predictive relative validity paradigm with rats, finding that the net conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus was determined not only by the stimulus, but also by the context in an additive way.