Peasant Household

Peasant Household

 

a family and labor association of persons engaged in agriculture together. The peasant household, which was associated with the obshchina (peasant commune), became a special social institution during the precapitalist period. With the penetration of capitalism into agriculture, the jointly owned property of the peasant household was replaced by the privately owned property of the head of the household.

The Peasant Reform of 1861 preserved the peasant household in Russia. However, with regard to household property, members did not enjoy equal rights of ownership. The head of the household represented the members, chose the means of working the land, rented or sold property, and decided which members might be sent away to work. Until 1906 members of peasant households could not go away, even temporarily, to other locali-ties to earn money without the permission of the head of the household. However, household members did have the right to appeal the actions of the head of the household in court, and they could ask the sel’skii skhod (village assembly) or the zemskii nachal’nik (land captain) for permission to divide the household. According to the Agrarian Reform of 1906 plots of land used by a household and either not belonging to the obshchina or allotted from its lands became the personal property of the head of the household, as did the plot of land by the farmhouse, in areas where the household worked only lands that belonged to the obshchina. Thus, the property rights of the heads of households were expanded.

After the Great October Revolution the peasant household was preserved as the most common form of land use among the peasants. Its legal status was consolidated in the 1922 Land Code of the RSFSR, which provided that the property of the peasant household was to be the common property of household members and that the household’s plot of land was to be used by all its members. In addition, all household members were given equal rights. (The head of the household became merely the spokesman for the household and could be replaced if the other members of the household demanded his removal.) Property relations, including the system of dividing the household or with-drawing from it, were regulated by the code. The land was given to the peasant household for its use without charge and in perpetuity. With the collectivization of agriculture, the peasant households became kolkhoz households.

After the consolidation of the kolkhoz system in the USSR, only individual peasant landowners who did not belong to the kolkhozes continued to have peasant households. The legal status of the peasant household is defined in the Constitution of the USSR, in the 1968 Principles of Land Legislation, and in the land codes of the Union republics. Under this legislation peasant households must rely on the personal labor of their members and cannot use hired workers.

G. S. BASHMAKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
In this article, inspired by Yao (2004), we develop a model to analyze how a peasant household arranges production factors when it faces an adverse employment shock.
The edification of the "peasants' state", based on "the peasant household based on labor"
Its persistence is attributable to the double-layered, mutually-reinforcing patriarchal system (operating between planters and peons, on the one hand, and within the peasant household, on the other) that combined coercion with consent.
Under this system, arable land owned by the state was distributed or contracted out to every peasant household which could support itself and earn extra income from farming.
Both of these developments have directly affected the nature of gender relations within and beyond the peasant household.
Qian was born into a wealthy peasant household in Zhejiang province in East China.
Ali (1981); Sathar (1984); Sathar and Irfan (1984)], overlooking, to some extent, the fact that mass education cannot be achieved unless it is consistent, from a private point of view, to peasant household choices [Caldwell, Reddy and Caldwell (1985), p.
Table 1: Sources of land in the survey (percent of the total area) Farm Peasant Household enterprises farms plots (n=136) (n=222) (n=190) Average farm size 4100 ha 270 ha 2.
The gendered division of the peasant household economy remained, but the growing connection of that economy to the market created something of an independent niche for village women, whose sale of poultry, eggs and dairy products proved especially profitable.
Lindemneyr implies that the presence of slavery and serfdom account for Russia's different path, relying on Richard Hellie's argument that slavery functioned as a surrogate welfare institution, as did serfdom and the extended peasant household after the demise of slavery in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries (pp.
Nearly every peasant household in Wuxi engaged in cocoon production for the urban-based silk filatures.
But at all ages, "womanly work" with thread and fabric--from spinning coarse cotton in a peasant household to fine embroidery for the elite--was demanded of women and carried complex cultural messages.