Peasant Revolt of 1907

Peasant Revolt of 1907

 

in Rumania, the culmination of peasant disturbances that began in 1904 and increased under the influence of the Revolution of 1905-07 in Russia.

The causes of the uprising were land hunger and the increased exploitation of the peasantry. The first to rebel were the peasants of Moldova (in the second half of February). The immediate cause was an increase in land rents. The peasants drove the landowners and large tenants from the estates and destroyed land leases and hiring contracts. Peasant detachments attacked Boto§ani, Ia§i, Dorohoi, and other cities into which the large tenants and landowners had fled. In late March, peasants revolted in Walachia (Muntenija and Olteni^a). Rallying under the slogan “We want land!,” peasant forces attempted (sometimes with success) to penetrate into Rimnicu-Sarat, Craiova, Giurgiu, Buzau, Pite§ti, and other cities. Large detachments moved on Bucharest but were routed. In Pa§cani, Buhu§i, Galaji, and the Prahova River valley, the peasants were supported by the workers.

The revolt precipitated a government crisis, and in March the Conservative government was replaced by a Liberal cabinet headed by D. Sturza. The army (140,000 men) was thrown into the struggle, dozens of villages were destroyed by artillery fire, and 11,000 peasants were killed or tortured. The revolt was crushed in April. Because of the revolt, agrarian reforms were implemented in 1908-10 that strengthened the position of the kulak stratum in the villages.

REFERENCES

Vinogradov, V. N. Krest’ianskoe vosstanie 1907goda v Rumynii. Moscow, 1958.
Istoriia Rumynii: 1848-1917. Moscow, 1971. Chapter 1.
Marea rascoala \aranilor din 1907. Bucharest, 1967.

V. N. VINOGRADOV