Peasants' War

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Peasants' War,

1524–26, rising of the German peasants and the poorer classes of the towns, particularly in Franconia, Swabia, and Thuringia. It was the climax of a series of local revolts that dated from the 15th cent. Although most of the peasants' demands were economic or political rather than religious, the Reformation sparked the explosion. When the peasants heard the church attacked by Martin LutherLuther, Martin,
1483–1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders. Early Life and Spiritual Crisis

Luther was educated at the cathedral school at Eisenach and at the Univ.
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 and other reformers and listened to traveling preachers expound such doctrines as the priesthood of all believers, they concluded that their cause had divine support and that their grievances would be redressed. At Stühlingen, near the Swiss border, a revolt broke out in 1524. The peasants of Swabia and Franconia organized armies, and within a year the war spread over W and S Germany. Aid was given by some discontented nobles, such as Florian Geyer, Götz von BerlichingenBerlichingen, Götz von
, 1480–1562, German knight and adventurer. The head of a band of free soldiers, he lost (1504) his right hand in the battle of Landshut and wore an iron one in its place. His forays against various cities earned him popular fame.
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, and Ulrich I, dispossessed duke of WürttembergWürttemberg
, former state, SW Germany. Württemberg was formerly also spelled Würtemberg and Wirtemberg. The former state bordered on Baden in the northwest, west, and southwest, on Hohenzollern and Switzerland (from which it was separated by Lake Constance) in
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, as well as by large numbers of townsmen. A program called the Twelve Articles of the Peasantry listed among the demands liberty to choose their own pastors, relief from the lesser tithes, abolition of serfdom, the right to fish and hunt, restoration of inclosed common lands, abolition of death duties, impartiality of the courts, and restriction of the demands of landlords to their just feudal dues. These articles were modified variously to suit local conditions. Some atrocities by the peasants (e.g., the massacre of Weinsberg) marked the war, but those committed by their enemies were worse. The revolt received the blessing of the Swiss reformer Huldreich Zwingli and in Thuringia was led by the radical Anabaptist leader Thomas MünzerMünzer or Müntzer, Thomas
, c.1489–1525, radical German Protestant reformer. During his studies at Leipzig (1518) Münzer fell under the influence of Martin Luther.
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. Martin Luther, however, condemned the revolt, thus contributing to its eventual defeat. Lacking unity and firm leadership, the peasant forces were crushed (1525) largely by the army of the Swabian LeagueSwabian League,
association of Swabian cities and other powers in SW Germany for the protection of trade and for regional peace. The Swabian League of 1488–1534 is the best known of the long series dating from the 14th cent.
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. It is estimated that 100,000 peasants were killed. In Austria, where the revolt continued until 1526, the peasants won some concessions, but in most areas they suffered continued or increased restrictions and had to pay tribute. The peasants' defeat dissuaded further attempts by the peasantry to improve their social and political position.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, the leaders of the German Principalities were forced to trigger massive repression to suppress the radical wing of religious reform after the German peasant war to create order against those who wanted to change the secular society and not just the connection that man must have with the church, as had been admitted by Martin Luther, persons known under the name of the Anabaptists (Pelz, 24).
This formed the backdrop of the peasant war in the early 1920s and late 1930s.
Then there are articles on printers and bookbinders; on the peasants in the little village of Struppen; on the mention of Muntzer in funeral sermons; on Werner Tiibke's panoramic portrayal of the Peasants' War at Frankenhausen; and on the conversion of the Muhlhausen Marienkirche into the Peasant War museum.
The translation is quite good, save for a few oddities where titles or concepts have a standard form in English (e.g., "Analectica of Confucius" instead of "Analects"; "battles of rites" instead of "rites controversy"; "farmers' war" instead of "Peasant War").
It became a summer resort after the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) moved its capital to present-day Beijing in 1276, and was destroyed during a peasant war at the end of the dynasty.
ground forces can contain the peasant war in Colombia.
Back to Michael Gaismair, he was a major military field commander and a socio-political organizer in what is usually referred to as the "Peasant War" in Tirol/ Tyrol (1525-1526 C.E.), but the nascent ever more proletarianized miners, were also vital in this rebellion against the Catholic feudal system.
(100) Jurgen Backing, "The Peasant War in the Habsburg Lands as a Social Systems-Conflict," in The German Peasant War 1525: New Viewpoints (eds.
One may look forward to contributions on Luther and Calvin, the peasant war, social developments, and Gutenberg and the media revolution.
As a result, he neglects the regional dimension of large-scale peasant movements such as the German peasant war of 1525, the French peasant revolts of 1789 and 1851, and the Russian revolution of 1905.
In conducting the investigation, he looks at how institutional characteristics influenced five historical episodes in history textbooks: the first mention of "Japan" or "Germany," respectively, in history; a large peasant uprising: the 16th century Kaga Uprising and the German Peasant War; the foundation of the modern nation-state: the Meiji Restoration in 1868 and the German Empire in 1871; the democratization of the political system in the 1920s: Taisho Democracy and the Weimar Republic; and the demise of democracy under totalitarianism.
The last three chapters - which cover the contents and reception of Luther's German Bible, an internecine debate over the Lord's supper and Catholic attacks on Luther for having incited the Peasant War - leave Strasbourg for other locales and take note of pamphlets published later than the announced cut-off date.