Pedagogical Institutes, Scientific Research

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Pedagogical Institutes, Scientific Research

 

scholarly institutions of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR and the ministries of education and public education of the Union republics. They conduct basic and applied research on problems of communist upbringing, education, and instruction, train and improve the skills of pedagogical personnel, and help both to implement the results of research and to publicize advanced pedagogical experience and knowledge. They also help produce textbooks and teaching and methodological aids and render scientific and methodological assistance to public education agencies and to institutes for improving the qualifications of teachers.

As of 1974 the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR had 12 scientific research institutes, reorganized in 1969 from corresponding institutes of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR or from subdivisions of these institutes. Eleven of these institutes, whose descriptions follow, are in Moscow. The Institute of General Pedagogy, which replaced the Scientific Research Institute of the Theory and History of Pedagogy (founded 1944), has 230 researchers, including 15 doctors and 96 candidates of sciences. The Institute of General and Pedagogical Psychology replaced the Institute of Psychology (founded 1912 under the administration of Moscow University); in 1944 it became part of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR and in 1972 was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. This institute has about 250 researchers, including 24 doctors and 96 candidates of sciences. The Institute of General Problems of Upbringing, which replaced the Scientific Research Institute of the Theory and History of Pedagogy, has approximately 150 researchers, including three doctors and 56 candidates of sciences. The Institute of the Content and Methods of Instruction replaced the Scientific Research Institute of General and Polytechnic Education (founded 1944); before 1960 it was known as the Institute of Instructional Methods. It has more than 250 researchers, including 17 doctors and 131 candidates of sciences. The Institute of Child and Adolescent Physiology replaced the Scientific Research Institute of Developmental Physiology and Physical Education (founded 1944 as the Institute of School Hygiene and between 1949 and 1963 known as the Institute of Physical Education and School Hygiene). It has more than 100 researchers, including 13 doctors and 49 candidates of sciences.

The Institute of Preschool Education, which replaced the scientific research institute of the same name (founded 1960), has more than 100 researchers, including six doctors and 42 candidates of sciences. The Institute of Labor Instruction and Vocational Orientation replaced the Scientific Research Institute for Industrial Training (founded 1960); it has more than 60 researchers, including five doctors and 36 candidates of sciences. The Institute of School Equipment and Technical Instructional Media (founded 1969) has more than 60 researchers, including four doctors and 26 candidates of sciences. The Institute of Art Training, which replaced the scientific research institute of the same name (founded 1947), has more than 50 researchers, including three doctors and 27 candidates of sciences. The Institute for Teaching Russian in National Schools (founded 1969) has about 50 researchers, including five doctors and 25 candidates of sciences. The Institute of Defectology (founded 1920) replaced the scientific research institute of the same name and since 1944 has been part of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR. It has approximately 150 researchers, including 17 doctors and 82 candidates of sciences. The Institute of General Education for Adults replaced the Scientific Research Institute of Evening (Shift) and Correspondence Secondary Schools (founded 1960 in Leningrad). It has about 100 researchers, including six doctors and 44 candidates of sciences.

Doctoral and candidate’s degrees are conferred by the Scientific Research Institutes of General Pedagogy, General and Pedagogical Psychology, Child and Adolescent Physiology, Content and Methods of Instruction, and Defectology. Candidate’s degrees are conferred by the Scientific Research Institutes of General Problems of Upbringing, School Equipment and Technical Instructional Media, Labor Instruction and Vocational Orientation, and Teaching Russian in National Schools. All scientific research institutes of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR offer graduate study and supplementary postgraduate training. Scientific research institutes have 14 experimental schools and conduct research at 800 supporting educational and training institutions.

All the Union republics have scientific research pedagogical institutes. These include (1974) the Institute of Schools of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR (founded 1967 in Moscow), the Institute of National Schools of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR (1949, Moscow), the Institute of Pedagogy of the Ministry of Education of the Ukrainian SSR (1926, Kiev), the Institute of Psychology of the Ministry of Education of the Ukrainian SSR (1945, Kiev), the Institute of Pedagogy of the Ministry of Education of the Byelorussian SSR (1928, Minsk), the Institute of Pedagogical Sciences of the Ministry of Education of the Uzbek SSR (1929, Tashkent, with a branch in Nukus, Kara-Kalpak ASSR), the I. Altynsarin Institute of Pedagogical Sciences of the Ministry of Education of the Kazakh SSR (1933, Alma-Ata), the la. S. Gogebashvili Institute of Pedagogical Sciences of the Ministry of Education of the Georgian SSR (1929, Tbilisi), the D. N. Uznadze Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR (1941, Tbilisi), and the Azerbaijan State Institute of Pedagogy (1931, Baku).

Other scientific research pedagogical institutes are the Institute of Pedagogy of the Ministry of Education of the Lithuanian SSR (1958, Vilnius), the Institute of Pedagogy of the Ministry of Public Education of the Moldavian SSR (1946, Kishinev), the Institute of Pedagogy of the Ministry of Education of the Latvian SSR (1952, Riga), the Institute of Pedagogy of the Ministry of Public Education of the Kirghiz SSR (1951, Frunze), the Institute of Pedagogical Sciences of the Ministry of Public Education of the Tadzhik SSR (1933, Dushanbe), the Institute of Pedagogical Sciences of the Ministry of Education of the Armenian SSR (1939, Yerevan), the Institute of Pedagogical Sciences of the Ministry of Public Education of the Turkmen SSR (1954, Ashkhabad), and the Institute of Pedagogy of the Ministry of Education of the Estonian SSR (1959, Tallinn). The Scientific Research Institute for Schools of the Ministry of Education of the Dagestan ASSR was organized in Makhachkala in 1944. In 1974 republic pedagogical scientific research institutes employed more than 1,500 researchers, including 62 doctors and about 600 candidates of pedagogical sciences.

Also in operation is the Ail-Union Scientific Research Institute of Vocational and Technical Education of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Vocational and Technical Education (founded 1963 in Leningrad). It has approximately 200 researchers, including three doctors and 40 candidates of sciences. The Scientific Research Institute for the Study of Problems of the Higher School of the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR (founded 1974 in Moscow) has about 200 researchers, including ten doctors and 60 candidates of sciences.

V. S. GRIBOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.