journals dealing with questions of upbringing, training, and education.
The first pedagogical journals appeared early in the 18th century. Mainly general in character, they were later differentiated according to branches of pedagogy, forms and stages of upbringing and education, types of educational institutions, age categories of pupils and students, academic subjects, geographical regions, and language.
Among the first pedagogical journals in England were J. Addison and R. Steele’s weekly Tatler (London, 1709–11), their Spectator (London, 1711–12 and 1714), and Steele’s Guardian (London, 1713); in France the Journal de famille ou livre des enfants (Paris, 1789); and in the USA the Juvenile Mirror or Educational Magazine (New York, 1812) and the American Journal of Education (Boston, 1826–39).
In Russia. The first Russian pedagogical journals were founded in the late 18th century and the early 19th. N. I. Novi-kov’s Pribavlenie k “Moskovskim vedomostiam” (1783–84) and V. Izmailov’s Patriot (Moscow, 1804) had pedagogical sections. Official pedagogical journals were Periodicheskoe sochinenie ob uspekhakh narodnogo prosveshcheniia (St. Petersburg, 1803–19), Zhurnal Departamenta narodnogo prosveshcheniia (St. Petersburg, 1821–24), and Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniia (St. Petersburg, 1834–1917). The first scholarly pedagogical journal, Pedagogicheskii zhurnal (St. Petersburg, 1833–34), was founded by E. Gugel’, P. Gur’ev, and A. Obodov-skii.
Pedagogical journals were published by educational societies and by individual groups of educators and cultural figures. Before 1917, more than 300 pedagogical journals were published in 50 cities, half of them in St. Petersburg and Moscow. Best known were Russkii pedagogicheskii vestnik (St. Petersburg, 1857–61), Uchitel’ (St. Petersburg, 1861–70), L. N. Tolstoy’s Iasnaia Poliana (1862), Narodnaia shkola (St. Petersburg, 1869–89), Detskii sad, the first journal on preschool education (St. Petersburg, 1866–76; from 1877 to 1917 published as Vospitanie i obuchenie), Pedagogicheskii sbornik (St. Petersburg, 1864–1918), Sem ‘ia i shkola (St. Petersburg, 1871–88), Pedagogicheskii listok (St. Petersburg, 1871–85 and 1892–94; Moscow, 1894–1918), and Pedagogicheskii muzei (St. Petersburg; 1875— 80), the first pedagogical journal with critiques and book reviews. Other leading journals were Pedagogicheskaia letopis’ (St. Petersburg, 1876–77), Zhenskoe obrazovanie (St. Petersburg, 1876–91), Vestnik vospitaniia (Moscow, 1890–1917), Russkaia shkola (St. Petersburg, 1890–1917), Tekhnicheskoe obrazovanie (St. Petersburg, 1892–1907; from 1908 to 1917 published as Tekhnicheskoe i kommercheskoe obrazovanie), Svobodnoe vospitanie (Moscow, 1907–18), Dlia narodnogo uchitelia (Moscow, 1907–17), Pedagogicheskoe obozrenie (Moscow, 1912–15), and Professional’noe obrazovanie (Petrograd, 1915–17). Among pedagogical journals appearing during the Revolution of 1905–07 was the first legal Bolshevik journal, Molodost’ (St. Petersburg, 1906, no. 1), which sharply criticized the state system of public education.
In the USSR. Beginning with the Soviet period, pedagogical journals were published in the Union and autonomous republics in national languages as well as in Moscow and Leningrad. These journals dealt with problems of communist upbringing, of public education, and of pedagogical developments.
In the early years of Soviet power the principal pedagogical journals were the organs of the RSFSR People’s Commissariat of Education Kommunisticheskoe prosveshchenie (Moscow, 1920 and 1922–30) and Narodnoe prosveshchenie (Moscow, 1918–21), as well as the journal Na putiakh k novoi shkole (Moscow, 1922–33). The publication of pedagogical journals on teaching methods and on specific branches of pedagogy was begun in 1918 and expanded and reorganized into a unified system in the 1930’s. The journal Sovetskaia pedagogika was founded in 1937.
To help solve problems of universal education and upgrade the role of the school in the building of communism during the 1940’s and 1950’s, a number of new general pedagogical journals were founded, in addition to others specializing in methodology. Beginning in the 1950’s, the proceedings and transactions of pedagogical educational and research institutions and of universities were extensively published. In 1974 about 50 pedagogical journals were published in the USSR.
JOURNALS PUBLISHED IN MOSCOW. Journals published in Moscow include Biologiia v shkole (Moscow, published under this name since 1957; founded 1927), Biulleten’ Ministerstva vysshego i srednego spetsial’nogo obrazovaniia SSSR (Moscow, 1959; founded 1936), Vestnik vysshei shkoly (Moscow, 1940), Vecherniaia sredniaia shkola (Moscow, 1961; founded 1958), Voprosy psikhologii (Moscow, 1955), Vospitanie shkol’nikov (Moscow, 1966; founded 1961), Geografiia v shkole (Moscow, 1934), and Defektologiia (Moscow, 1969). Other Moscow journals are Mathematika v shkole (Moscow, 1936), Narodnoe obrazovanie (Moscow, 1946), Prepodavanie istorii v shkole (Moscow, 1946; founded 1934), Professional’no-tekhnicheskoe obrazovanie (Moscow, 1952; founded 1941), Russkii iazyk v nat-sional’noi shkole (Moscow, 1957), Sovetskaia pedagogika (Moscow, 1937), Srednee spetsial’noe obrazovanie (Moscow, 1954), Fizika v shkole (Moscow, 1937), Fizicheskaia kul’tura v shkole (Moscow, 1958), Khimiia v shkole (Moscow, 1937), and Shkola i proizvodstvo (Moscow, 1960; founded 1957).
REPUBLIC JOURNALS. Pedagogical journals published in the RSFSR include Doshkol’noe vospitanie (Moscow, 1928), Ino-strannyi iazyk v shkole (Moscow, 1936; founded 1934), Literatura v shkole (Moscow, 1936), Nachal’naia skhola (Moscow, 1933), Russkii iazyk v shkole (Moscow, 1936; founded 1928); Bashkortostan ukïtïusïpï (Ufa, 1952; 1924), and Sovet mektebe (Kazan, 1938; 1918). Journals published in the Ukrainian SSR include Doshkil’ne vykhovannia (Kiev, 1951; 1931), Pochatkova shkola (Kiev, 1969), Radians’ka shkola (Kiev, 1945; 1922), and Ukrains’ka mova i literatura v shkoli (Kiev, 1963; 1951). Narodnaia asveta (Minsk, 1960) is published in the Byelorussian SSR and Savet mäktäbi (Tashkent, 1951; 1918) in the Uzbek SSR. In the Kazakh SSR Kazakhstan mektebi (Alma-Ata, 1960; 1925) is published with the supplement Russkii iazyk v kazakhskoi shkole. Skola da tskhovreba (Tbilisi, 1960; 1924) is published in the Georgian SSR.
Journals published in the Azerbaijan SSR are Azerbaidzhan dili ve adabiiat tedrisi (Baku, 1954), Azerbaidzhan mektebi (Baku, 1943; 1924), Russkii iazyk v nerusskoi shkole (Baku, 1948), and Fizika ve riiaziiat tedrisi (Baku, 1954). Tarybinė mokykla (Vilnius, 1945) is published in the Lithuanian SSR, Ynvetsetorul sovetik (Kishinev, 1950) in the Moldavian SSR, Skola un ǵimene (Riga, 1964) in the Latvian SSR, Ël agartuu (Frunze, 1972) in the Kirghiz SSR, and Maktabi soveti (Dushanbe, 1938; 1926) in the Tadzhik SSR. Journals published in the Armenian SSR are Russkii iazyk v armianskoi shkole (Yerevan, 1957) and Sovetakan mankavarzh (Yerevan, 1926). Turkmenistanïn khalk magarïfi (Ashkhabad, 1931) is published in the Turkmen SSR and Nōukogude kool (Tallinn, 1940) in the Estonian SSR.
The popular-science journal Sem ‘ia i shkola and the Komsomol and youth journal Vozhatyi have a pedagogical orientation.
In foreign countries. Pedagogical journals published in Bulgaria include Narodna prosveta (Sofia; published since 1945), Nachalno obrazovanie (Sofia, 1961), Profesionalno obrazovanie (Sofia, 1956), and Semeistvo i uchilishte (Sofia, 1949). British journals include Adult Education (London, 1926), the British Journal of Educational Studies (London, 1952), Education (London, 1903), Education Today (London, 1951), Educational Philosophy and Theory (Oxford, 1969), Educational Research (London, 1958), the Educational Review (Birmingham, 1948), the Journal of Education (London, 1867), Oversea Education (London, 1929), Sociology of Education Abstracts (Liverpool, 1965), Trends in Education (London, 1966), Studies in Education (Hull, 1947), the Times Educational Supplement (London, 1910), and Visual Education (London, 1950).
Hungarian pedagogical journals include Köznevelés (Budapest, 1945), Magyar pedagógía (Budapest, 1961) and Pedagógiai szemle (Budapest, 1951). Among journals published in the German Democratic Republic are Fachschule (Berlin, 1953), Neue Erziehung im Kindergarten und Heim (Berlin, 1948), Pädagogik (Berlin, 1946), Polytechnische Bildung und Erziehung (Berlin, 1959; formerly, Schule und Production, Berlin, 1957), and Sozia-listische Erziehung (Berlin, 1955). Dansk paedagogisk tidsskrift (Copenhagen, 1953) is published in Denmark and Problemi della pedagogia (Rome, 1955) in Italy. Inmin kyoyuk (Pyongyang, 1946) is published in the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea and Pedagogo (Havana, 1949) and Educación (Havana, 1971) in Cuba. In the Mongolian People’s Republic Surgan khümüüzhü-ülegch (Ulan Bator, 1961) is published, and in Norway Norsk pedagogisk tidskrift (Oslo, 1917).
Polish pedagogical journals include Kwartalnik pedagogiczny (Warsaw, 1956), Nowa szkota (Warsaw, 1950); Oświata dorostych (Warsaw, 1957), Wychowanie (Warsaw, 1958), and Życie szkoty wyźszej (Warsaw, 1953). Journals published in Rumania include Revista de pedagogie (Bucharest, 1952) and Revista de referate: [Series] Pedagogie, psichologie (Bucharest, 1961). Among pedagogical journals published in the USA are the American Educational Research Journal (Washington, D.C., 1964), Child Development: Abstracts and Bibliography (Chicago, 1927), The Comparative Education Review (New York, 1957), Education Digest (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1935), the Elementary School Journal (Chicago, 1900), the Harvard Educational Review(Cambridge, Mass., 1931), the History of Education Quarterly (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1961), the Journal of Education (Boston, 1875), the Journal of Educational Research (Madison, Wis., 1925), the Journal of Experimental Education (Madison, Wis., 1931), the Journal of Secondary Education (Burlingame, Calif., 1925), the Journal of Teacher Education (Washington, D.C., 1950), Research in Education (Washington, D.C., 1966), the Review of Educational Research (Los Angeles, 1915), School and Society (New York, 1915), the School Review (Chicago, 1893), Soviet Education (New York, 1959), and Today’s Education (Washington, D.C. 1921).
Pedagogical journals published in France include Bulletin sig-nalétique. Part 520: Sciences de l’éducation (Paris; until 1970, Pédagogie), Ecole et la nation (Paris, 1950), Education (Paris; until 1968, Education nationale, Paris, 1944), and Pédagogie (Paris, 1945). Among journals published in the Federal Republic of Germany are Westermanns pädagogische Beiträge (Braunschweig, 1949), Bildung und Erziehung (Bonn, 1948), Pädagogische Rundschau (Ratingen bei Düsseldorf, 1946), Pädagogische Welt (Munich, 1946), and Vierteljahrsschrift für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik (Bochum, 1924). Journals published in Czechoslovakia include Novinky literatury: Společenské vědy. Series 8: Přehled pedagogické literatury (Prague, 1948), Odborná výchova (Prague, 1950), Pedagogika (Prague, 1951), Socialistickáškola (Prague, 1961), Učební pomůcky veškole a osvětě (Prague, 1961), Vysokáškola (Prague, 1953), Rodina aškola (Bratislava, 1953), and Vychovatel (Prague, 1957). Pedagogisk tidsskrift (Stockholm, 1865) is published in Sweden and Pedagogija (Belgrade, 1963) in Yugoslavia.
Also published in socialist countries are many pedagogical journals dealing with teaching methods for specific subjects, as well as pedagogical journals on preschool, aesthetic, and physical education.
International journals. International pedagogical journals include Sovremennaia vysshaia shkola: Mezhdunarodnyi zhurnal sotsialisticheskikh stran (Warsaw, 1973; published in Russian), Educational Documentation and Information (Geneva; until 1972), Bulletin of the International Bureau of Education (Geneva, 1927), International Review of Education (The Hague, 1955), Lehrer der Welt (Berlin, 1963), Parents et les maîtres (Paris, 1959), and Teachers of the World (Prague, 1962).
REFERENCESPeriodicheskaia pechat’ SSSR, 1917–1949: Bibliograficheskii ukazatel’ [vol. 6]. Moscow, 1956.
Davis, S. E. Educational Periodicals During the Nineteenth Century. Washington, D.C, 1919.
America’s Education Press: A Classified List of Educational Publications Issued in the United States of America Together With an International List of Educational Periodicals. Paris .
Educational Periodicals. [Paris, 1963.]
P. K. KOLMAKOV