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We do not necessarily believe that most critical pedagogists are directly calling for armed revolutions by the oppressed and their allies.
Pre-service and in-service pedagogists need to transfer knowledge bases about social justice and global interdependence into actions, inclusive of language, behaviors, and practices.
New Literacy theorists and educational theorists such as Gee, (1991 & 2000), Street (2005), Luke (1998 & 2000), and Pahl and Rowsell (2005), as well as critical pedagogists such as Paulo Freire (1970) suggest that standardised tests reduce literacy to a few simple skills, encourage passive transmission orientated classrooms, fail to engage students personal interests and cognitive abilities, and suffocate identities.
By the end of the 20th century, however, critical pedagogists rejected virtually all "universal truths" and scolded professionals for ethnocentrism and promoting white, middle-class values without regard to cultural variations.
Learning from the traditions of critical pedagogists, we believe that, in a democracy, power relationships must be identified and critiqued (Kinchefoe, 2004).