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Pedro.For Spanish and Portuguese rulers thus named, use Peter.
Pedro I. Born Oct. 12, 1798, in Lisbon; died Sept. 24, 1834, in Lisbon. Emperor from 1822 to 1831 (regent in 1821–22). Under pressure from the independence movement, in 1822, Pedro declared Brazil a constitutional monarchy independent of Portugal. He ruled as a despotic monarch—ignoring the constitution, brutally suppressing the republican movement, encouraging the penetration of British capital into the country, and installing an English military and commercial administration. The strengthening of the liberal movement induced him to abdicate in favor of his young son.
In 1826, Pedro had succeeded to the Portuguese throne, which he had immediately abdicated in favor of his daughter. After his abdication from the Brazilian throne, he took part in a struggle to restore his daughter, Maria II da Gloria, to the Portuguese throne.
Pedro II. Born Dec. 2, 1825, in Rio de Janeiro; died Dec. 5, 1891, in Paris. Emperor from 1831 to 1889. Because of a widespread republican and abolitionist movement, Pedro resorted to liberal methods of rule, combining them with brutal violence against popular uprisings. Under his rule, Brazil waged a war against Argentina in 1851–52. From 1865 to 1870 he headed a reactionary coalition of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay against Paraguay. The Paraguayan war weakened Brazil’s economic situation, and the abolitionist and republican movement in the country grew stronger. Under these circumstances, Pedro was compelled to abolish slavery in May 1888. In 1889 he was overthrown as a result of the republican antimonarchical movement, and Brazil was proclaimed a federal republic.