Pedro II

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Pedro II

(Dom Pedro II de Alcântara), 1825–91, emperor of Brazil (1831–89). At the age of five, he succeeded under a regency when his father, Pedro IPedro I
(Dom Pedro de Alcântara) , 1798–1834, first emperor of Brazil (1822–31); son of John VI of Portugal. Dom Pedro was a child when the Portuguese royal family, fleeing from Napoleon's conquering French army, left Portugal for Brazil.
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, abdicated. He was declared of age in 1840. Pedro II's long reign was characterized by great social change, material progress, and wars with neighboring nations. Brazil aided Justo José de UrquizaUrquiza, Justo José de
, 1801–70, Argentine general and politician, president of the confederation (1854–60). As the caudillo of Entre Ríos prov., he helped sustain the power of Juan Manuel de Rosas.
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 in the war (1851–52) against Juan Manuel de RosasRosas, Juan Manuel de
, 1793–1877, Argentine dictator, governor of Buenos Aires prov. (1829–32, 1835–52). As a boy he served under Jacques de Liniers against the British invaders of the Rio de la Plata (1806–7).
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, at the same time intervening in Uruguayan affairs in support of Venancio Flores. Later, Brazil joined Argentina and Uruguay in the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay (1865–70). Pedro II was extremely popular, but the economic and social tendencies of his time betrayed him. In 1850 the slave trade was prohibited; in 1871 a law was passed providing for gradual emancipation; and, in 1888, when Pedro was in Europe, a law abolishing slavery was signed by his daughter IsabelIsabel,
1846–1921, princess imperial of Brazil; eldest daughter of Pedro II. She acted as regent in her father's absence. Her marriage to the comte d'Eu added to her own unpopularity and probably contributed to the growing republican sentiment of her time.
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. Brazil's modernization led to widening divisions between the feudalistic countryside and the rapidly growing urban populations and newer export sectors. A coalition of the urban middle class, coffee planters, and the military increasingly disparaged the monarchy and its ties to the traditional landed class. They advocated the creation of a modern republic that would support the new coffee and industrial capitalism, finding additional allies in the church. Discontent became widespread, and the military, representing this diverse opposition, overturned the empire. The revolution was led by Manuel Deodoro da FonsecaFonseca, Manuel Deodoro da
, 1827–92, first president of Brazil (1891). A leader of the discontented militarists who helped overturn the empire (Nov., 1889), he headed the provisional government that established the republic.
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. Pedro was exiled, and spent the remainder of his life in Europe.


See biography by M. W. Williams (1937, repr. 1966); and study by E. V. de Costa, The Brazilian Empire: Myths and Histories (1985).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Pedro II had a keen interest in the Orient and visited the region twice in the 1870s.
A trajetoria ascendente de Ribeiro nesta decada permanece misteriosa a nos ainda hoje: nao sabemos como o jovem que havia abandonado a Faculdade de Medicina de Salvador chega a capital do pais e, aparentemente sem dinheiro, nem contatos previos, ao final dela publica um Compendio de Historia da Literatura Brasileira (1888) junto de Silvio Romero, um Dicionario Gramatical (1888) e acaba ingressando como professor de Historia do Colegio Pedro II. Esse intersticio turvo paira como uma especie de "Pre-historia" de Joao Ribeiro, ja que foi negligenciado pelos biografos que lhe foram mais proximos--pessoal e temporalmente falando.
Other wonderful inventions shown for the first time were Alexander Graham Bell's telephone (Emperor Dom Pedro II is said to have picked up the receiver, put it up to his ear and hurriedly dropped it, exclaiming, "It talks!"), Remington's "typographic machine" (typewriter) and a Wallace-Farmer dynamo that powered several arc lights, and which is said to have inspired Thomas Edison in his work on incandescent lighting.
Suas producoes realizadas na segunda metade do seculo XIX demostram insatisfacao com o governo de Don Pedro II. Esse artista iniciou a carreira em 1864, com a publicacao de ilustracoes na revista Diabo Coxo, em Sao Paulo.
When Prince Adalbert of Prussia visited Pedro II in Rio in 1849, he noted that the emperor busied himself with photographic 'experiments', the intricacies of which confounded his German guest.
Pedro II y su participacion en exposiciones universales, en las que se pretendia mostrar a Brasil como una nacion moderna, en comparacion con algunos paises europeos del siglo XIX.