mediation

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mediation,

in law, type of intervention in which the disputing parties accept the offer of a third party to recommend a solution for their controversy. Mediation has long been a part of international law, frequently involving the use of an international commission, in a process known as by conciliation. Mediation differs from arbitration in being a diplomatic rather than a judicial procedure; thus, the parties to the dispute are not bound to accept the mediator's recommendation. Resort to mediation has become increasingly frequent, both for internal and international disputes. The Declaration of Paris (1856) expressed the hope that the signatories would ask for mediation in their disputes. At the Second Hague Conference (1907), the right of friendly powers to offer mediation was recognized. The Covenant of the League of Nations provided that the whole League, acting through the League Council, should offer conciliation, and the Charter of the United Nations requires all members to submit disputes to mediation on recommendation of the Security Council. Mediation has been successful in many cases of international conflict. The United States served as mediator between Bolivia and Chile (1882) and between Russia and Japan (1905). The United Nations served as a mediator in the conflict in IsraelIsrael
, officially State of Israel, republic (2015 est. pop. 8,065,000, including Israelis in occupied Arab territories), 7,992 sq mi (20,700 sq km), SW Asia, on the Mediterranean Sea.
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 in 1948. In 1966, the Soviet Union mediated the border clashes between India and China. The Secretary-General of the United Nations mediated successfully in several international disputes, particularly that over Netherlands New Guinea (see PapuaPapua
or Irian Jaya
, province (2014 est pop. 3,486,000), 123,180 sq mi (319,036 sq km), Indonesia. Comprising most of the western half of New Guinea and a number of offshore islands, it is Indonesia's largest province; the extreme western peninsulas and offshore
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). Mediation has become increasingly important for internal disagreements as well, particularly in labor disputes. In the United States, the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service works toward a healthy relationship between labor and management, mediating disputes where necessary and promoting collective bargaining. Many state and local governments in the U.S. have similar organizations, each generally having the power to intervene when the public interest appears to be in jeopardy. National mediation services are also common in other nations, particularly among the Western democracies.

Mediation

 

in international law, a form of peaceful settlement of disputes between states by means of negotiations with the participation of a third state, the mediator, on the basis of conditions advanced by the mediator. Mediation differs from good offices in that the mediator suggests specific proposals to serve as the basis of negotiations and of the settlement of the disputes.

The procedure of mediation is regulated by the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and the Charter of the United Nations (art. 33). According to the UN Charter, various conventions, and current practice, the mediator may offer his services upon the request of the disputing parties, upon his own initiative, or upon the initiative of powers not party to the dispute. There have been times when the Soviet government has accepted the mediation of other states and has itself been a mediator. For instance, in 1945 the USSR accepted the mediation of the French provisional government in negotiations with Switzerland on the status of persons interned during the war.

References in periodicals archive ?
Peer mediation programs have been designed and implemented in schools as an alternative to traditional approaches to dispute resolution (Hart & Gunty, 1997; Turnuklu, Kacmaz, Sunbul, & Ergul, 2010).
As in the studies of peer mediation in the 1980s and 1990s, positive outcomes of this inquiry also justify program implementation.
Programs that spotlight positive behavior, peer mediation, and simple social skills need to be taught to kids, "just like reading and math," she says.
Types of interventions include modeling/reinforcement, peer mediation, schedules of a social interaction (what's supposed to happen and when), and scripting/stories.
She was a junior at Thurston High School, where she was involved in community projects and school study circles on diversity, peer mediation and cultural events.
Rhee admits that police and security are not the answer, saying that overflowing the corridors with more city police and private security guards is not the way to end the violence; She is now calling for improved peer mediation and conflict management programs, such as those sponsored by the anti-violence group Peaceoholics.
Elementary, middle, and secondary schools have implemented peer mediation systems to involve students in resolving conflicts, thereby empowering students and encouraging their participation in the school community (Kajs, Thomas, Wilson, & Zambon, 2001).
ERIC Descriptors: Bilingual Education; Second Language Learning; Enrichment; English (Second Language); Bilingualism; Second Language Instruction; Second Languages; Intervention; Interviews; Pilot Projects; Program Implementation; Peer Mediation; Educational Theories; Cognitive Development; Cognitive Processes
Arladun Somali-Canadian Society, Peer Mediation and Conflict Resolution Project.
The study focused on (1) the effects of peer mediation as part of a behavioral intervention package of empirically validated components, (2) the effects of aligning assessment data to the BIP, and (3) the social validity of the assessment and intervention process.
The programs focused on various approaches, including problem-solving skills and emotion-control strategies, rewards for good behavior, conflict resolution, and peer mediation. Some programs provided individual or family counseling and parent-skill training.
The effectiveness of an existing peer mediation program in a diverse, suburban elementary school was examined.