Indeed, Thucydides seeks to provide a political and moral education for his readers--a positive and negative education in wise and humane statesmanship--as is revealed, for example, by his explicit judgments of such leaders as Archidamus, Themistocles, Pericles, Cleon, Brasidas, Peisistratus
, Hermocrates, Nicias, and Antiphon.
Two centuries earlier, during the reigns of Peisistratus
and Hipparchus (middle and second half of the sixth century), an official recension of the Homeric poems had been established for public recitations at the Panathenaic festival.
Since Solon and Peisistratus
were considered of the same generation, his birth could not have been much earlier than 625.
Darius's groom may have possessed the "horse sense" to effect the prodigy, but Darius's audacity and willingness to manipulate the credulity of his competitors (like that of Peisistratus
among the Athenians) won the day.
He is also known to have purchased the confiscated property of Peisistratus
Hall has examined the phenomenon in tragedy.(28) Herodotus' ethnographic excursuses also create imagined worlds of degrees of barbarian otherness that focus on marriage, diet, and other areas of anthropological interest.(29) Hartog identifies Herodotus' images of the barbarian king as a study in royal otherness, treating barbarianism and royalty as virtually inseparable concepts, though Greek tyrants like Periander and Peisistratus
and some Spartan kings also transgress normal relations with women, castrate noble boys, etc.(30) Their characteristics include promiscuity and lust, pride and oppression, secret operations, violation of nomoi, physical mutilation, etc.(31) They share the excessive hierarchy, luxury, and emotion of the tragic barbarian.(32)
Tragedy of some form was introduced by the tyrant Peisistratus
when he refounded the festival (534/531 BC), but the earliest tragedy that survives, Aeschylus' Persians, dates from 472 BC.
, the noble youngest son of King Nestor.
'The Peisistratids,' accused by name here, are generally considered to be the direct biological offspring of Peisistratus
, who, in Cicero's words, primus Homeri libros confusos antea sic disposuisse dicitur, ut nunc habemus (is said to be the first man have ordered the books of Homer out of the jumble they were in before into the manner that we have today).
Fredal first recounts how Peisistratus
acquired supreme power by ingratiating himself with the commoners, a process he began by faking some injuries and blaming them on his enemies.
The conclusions reached are that the metaphor signifies that the Athenians, rather than being cunning, have been tricked by a 'fox', and that this 'fox' is a tyrant, probably Peisistratus
In the rest of the passage he uses only [Greek Words Omitted], and his subject is the various peoples (Pelasgians, Hellenes, Spartans, Athenians) as language-groups, as groups that `split off' or `joined' others (58), or, in the case of the Athenians, as a people tyrannized by Peisistratus